Race in ROC's constitutions

China's rise and fall as an ethnic nation

By William Wetherall

First posted 15 February 2007
Last updated 15 July 2007

1912 ROC constitution   ROC people equal regardless of race
1923 ROC constitution   ROC people equal regardless of race
1931 ROC constitution   ROC people equal regardless of race
1936 ROC constitution   ROC ethnic nations of Chinese ethnic nation equal, ROC people equal regardless of race
1947 ROC constitution   ROC ethnic nations equal, ROC people equal regardless of race

The various races of Chinese

Here we will look at how several generations of constitutions have defined the people of China, from the beginning of the Republic of China in 1912 to ROC today, and in the People's Republic of China (PRC) since its start in 1949. More attention will be given to ROC because it has has had a greater variety of constitutions over a longer period of time, during which national descriptions have most conspicuously changed.

Raceless nationality and ethnic subnationality

A state's demographic territory is called a "nation". The people who constitute a state's "nation" are called "nationals". An individual is a national of a state if the state recognizes that the individual possesses its "nationality" as a legal status or affiliation.

Legally, no state's nation or nationality is an ethnic or racial entity or quality. International law does not recognize "ethnicity" or "raciality" in a state's nation or nationality. Some states, however, constitutionally describe their nations in racioethnic terms and racialize their nationals in domestic laws.

Japan's constitution and nationality law have never racilized Japan's nation. In terms of both international and domestic law, being "Japanese" has always been free of racioethnic nuances. For sure, "Japanese" as a social label is highly racialized in Japan and elsewhere. In the United States but not in Japan, "Japanese" has been racialized in law (immigration and naturalization) and as a demographic term (race boxes).

China's constitutions and domestic laws, however, have increasingly described China's nation in racioethnic terms. In the midst of what is now called the Second Sino-Japanese War or Fifteen Year War (1931-1945), the Republic of China (ROC) constitutionally defined the Chinese people as a ratioethnic nation composed of several member ethnic nations. The People's Republic of China (PRC) now paraphrases this description of itself as a unitary multiethnonational state.

The nationality laws of ROC and PRC make it clear that their state nationalities are available to any qualified person regardless of race or ethnicity. However, the constitutions of both entities recognize that their nations consist of multiple ethnic subnations, and otherwise provide for the legalization of ethnic status within their state nationalities.

Translations and commentary

All of the translations of the articles cited from earlier constitutions are mine. The translations of the articles cited from the 1947 ROC and 1982 PRC constitutions are from the most widely circulated English verions.

In all my translations I have endeavored to represent the same Chinese terms and the same or simlar Chinese phrases in the same or similar English phrases. For example, š –¯ will always be "national" and never "the people" or "citizens" in my nomenclature. –¯‘° will always be "ethnic nation" or "ethnonational" and never "nationality" or "nation" or "race" or "ethnic group". l–¯ will always be "the people" and ’†‰Ø–¯š l–¯ will always be "the people of the Republic of China" and the like.

Such terms and phrases have been highlighted. Where the circulated translations of the 1947 ROC and 1982 PRC constitutions are at odds with my nomenclature, I have shown my nomenclature in parentheses.

Further commentary on Chinese and English usage is found in discussions of national definition in the 1947 ROC and 1982 PRC constitutions.

Related articles

The following articles also examine nationality and ethnic status in ROC and PRC today.

The Republic of China as a state: The vicissitudes of recognition politics

ROC's 13 ethnic nations: Taiwanizing Sinified-Japanized aborigines

ROC's 2000 Nationality Law: Membership in a stateless nation

ROC's 2001 Aborigine Status Act: The legal embrace of indigenous Taiwanese

Race in PRC's constitutions: Principles of ethnic equality and autonomy

PRC's 56 ethnic subnations: The racialist revolution against racism

PRC's 1980 Nationality Law: A single nationality multiethnic state


ROC constitutions, 1912 to 2005

The Republic of China was born in late 1911 and formally took its first breath on 1 January 1912 with Sun Yat-sen (Sun Wen, Sun1 Zhong1shan1, 1866-1925) at its helm in Nanking (Nanjing, southern capital). The new state quickly floundered, however, when its government was taken over by Yuan Shih-k'ai (Yuan2 Shi4kai3, 1859-1916), who declared himself a new emperor in Peking (Peiching, Beijing, northern capital).

In 1913, Sun went into exile in Japan, where he had lived before, had a following, and was known as Nakayama Sho (’†ŽR¿, Zhongshan). Yuan's death in 1916 plunged China into a period of warlordism. Sun returned to China in 1917 and in 1921 became the president of a nationalist goverment in Kwangtung (Guangdong, Canton) which controlled southern China but was not internationally recognized.

In 1928, three years after Sun's death, an expedition sent north by his successor, Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975), seized control of Peking and declared an end to its warlord government. Chiang then established the capital of a rejuvenated Republic of China in Nanking and renamed the northern city Peip'ing (pacified/peaceful north).

ROC constitutions before World War II

Pre World War II constitutions reflect the principles of ROC's political organization before it become heavily embroiled in the defense of China against Japan.

First phase (1912-1928) -- China as a people's nation

The first republican government drafted a 7 chapter, 56 article provisional constitution in 1912 and a more elaborate 13 chapter, 140 article constitution in 1923. Neither racialized the people of China, and both prohibited distinctions of race, class, and religion among the people.

Second phase (1928-1947) -- China as an ethnic nation

In 1931, the second republican government drafted an 8 chapter, 89 article constitution that defined the people of China, as previous constitutions had, without reference to their ethnicity.

In 1936, having lost Manchuria to an increasingly aggressive Japan, ROC drafted an 8 chapter, 147 article constitution that equated the Chinese people with an ethnic nation composed of various ethnic nations that were to be entirely equal. Its education goals included the instilling of an ethnic spirit in the people.

ROC constitution after World War II

ROC's postwar constitution reflects ROC's confidence as a state after Japan's defeat in World War II -- a confidence immediately shaken by its loss of the mainland to communist revolutionaries.

Third phase (since 1947) -- Postwar and post-revolution ROC

The 1947 constitution, featuring 14 chapters and 175 articles, took the ethnic starch out it definition of the people of China while still calling for the cultivation of "ethnic spirit" in education. It also made provisions for representation of Mongolia, Tibet, and frontier ethnic nations in government.

This contsitution, partly suspended by martial law shortly after it came into effect during the civil (revolutionary) war, is still in effect.

Fourth phase (since 1991) -- Recognition of indigenous people

The 1947 constitution did not became fully operative until martial law was lifted in 1987. A number of amendments have been made since 1991, all in the form of additional articles.

Since the second round of amendments in 1992, ROC's constitution has provided for the political participation and protection of Taiwan's indigneous people -- so-called since the third revision in 1993, the United Nations Year of the World's Indigenous People.

The same amendments have also reflected ROC's commitment to protect the interests of both Kinmen and Matsu (since 1992), and also Penghu (since 2005).


1912 ROC constitution

1912 Provisional law [constitution] of the Republic of China (’†‰Ø–¯š —ÕŽž–ñ–@)
Promulgated 11 March 1912 (ROC 1)
7 chapters, 56 articles

Chapter 1: General provisions

’†‰Ø–¯š —R’†‰Øl–¯‘gD”VB

Article 4
The Republic of China shall be organized by the people of the Republic of China.

’†‰Ø–¯š ”VŽåžÜ›¢‰—š –¯‘S铁B

Article 5
Sovereignty of the Republic of China shall belong to the entire body of nationals.

Chapter 2: The people

’†‰Ø–¯š l–¯ˆê—¥•½“™A–³Ží‘°AŠK‹‰A@‹³”V™½•ÊB

Article 4
The people of the Republic of China shall be entirely equal, with no differentiaion of race, class, or religion.


1923 ROC constitution

1923 Draft Constitution of the Republic of China (’†‰Ø–¯š Œ›–@‘ˆÄ)
aka Tiantan Draft (“V’d‘ˆÄ)
Promulgated 10 October 1923 (ROC 12)
13 chapters, 140 articles

‘æŽlÍFš –¯)
Chapter 4: Nationals

–}ˆË–@—¥Š’蛢’†‰Ø–¯š š ÐŽÒˆ×’†‰Ø–¯š l–¯B

Article 4
Those who are determined by law to belong to the nationality of the Republic of China shall be the people of the Republic of China.

’†‰Ø–¯š l–¯‰—–@—¥ã–³Ží‘°ŠK‹‰@‹³”V•ÊA‹Ïˆ×•½“™B

Article 5
The people of the Republic of China shall in law, with no distinction of race, class, or religion, all be equal.


1931 ROC constitution

1931 Constitution of the Republic of China
During the Period of [Political] Tutelage
(’†‰Ø–¯š ŒP­ŽžŠú–ñ–@)
Enacted 12 May 1931 (ROC 20)
Promulgated 1 June 1931 (ROC 20)
8 chapters, 89 articles

Chapter 1: General provisions

–}ˆË–@—¥‹—L’†‰Ø–¯š š ÐŽÒˆ×’†‰Ø–¯š š –¯B

Article 2 (Paragraph 2)
Those who by law possess the nationality of the Republic of China shall be nationals of the Republic of China.

Chapter 2: Rights and duties of the people

’†‰Ø–¯š š –¯–³’j—AŽí‘°A@‹³AŠK‹‰”V™½•ÊAÝ–@—¥ãˆê—¥•½“™B

Article 6
Nationals of the Republic of China shall be entirely equal in law, without distinctions of sex, race, religion, or class.


1936 ROC constitution

1936 Draft Constitution of the Republic of China (’†‰Ø–¯š Œ›–@‘ˆÄ)
aka 55 Constituion Draft (ŒÜŒÜŒ›‘)
Passed 2 May 1936 (ROC 25)
Promulgated 5 May 1936 (ROC 25)
8 chapters, 147 articles

Chapter 1: General provisions

‹ï—L’†‰Ø–¯š ”Vš ÐŽÒAˆ×’†‰Ø–¯š š –¯B

Article 3
Those who possess the nationality of the Republic of China, shall be nationals of the Republic of China.

’†‰Ø–¯š Še–¯‘°‹Ïˆ×’†‰Ø–¯‘°”V\¬(l{•ª)ŽqAˆê—¥•½“™B

Article 5
Composing members of the Chinese ethnic nation, which the various ethnic nations of the Republic of China all constitute, shall be entirely equal.

Chapter 2: Rights and duties of the people

’†‰Ø–¯š l–¯Ý–@—¥ãˆê—¥•½“™B

Article 8
The people of the Republic of China shall be in law entirely equal.

Chapter 7: Education

’†‰Ø–¯š ”V‹³ˆç@Ž|AÝᢗg–¯‘°¸_A”|—{š –¯“¹úºAŒP—ûŽ©Ž¡”\—́Aúi¶Šˆ’m”\AˆÈ‘¢¬Œ’‘Sš –¯B

Article 131
The educational objectives of the Republic of China shall be the fostering of ethnonational spirit, the cultivation of national morality, the training of self-governing capability, and the enhancement of livelihood faculties, in order to create healthy nationals.


1947 ROC constitution

Constitution of the Republic of China (’†‰Ø–¯š Œ›–@)
Passed 25 December 1946 (ROC 35)
Promulgated 1 January 1947 (ROC 36)
Enforced from 25 December 1947 (ROC 36)
14 chapters, 175 articles
Revised seven times from 1991 to 2005
12 amendement articles as of 7th revision)

Postwar constitution rush

Back in Nanking (Nanjing) from the wartime capital at Chungking (Chongqing), ROC's National Assembly adopted a new constitution that came into effect on 25 December 1947. This constitution was an expanded version of the the 1936 draft put aside amidst mounting tensions between Japan and China leading to Japan's invasion of northern China on 7 July 1937.

In the following examination of how the 1947 constitution defines and describes ROC's people, certain key words will be compared with their counterparts in Japan's postwar constitution, which was promulgated on 3 November 1946 (Emperor Meiji's birthday, now Culture Day) and came into effect on 3 May 1947, shortly ahead of ROC's constitution. ROC's constitution has been heavily revised since 1991. As of this writing (2007), Japan's constitution remains totally unamended.

Four-decade hibernation

A year after its birth, ROC's postwar constitution was sent into a cave by the "Provisional articles for the period of mobilization and suppression of the [communist] rebellion" (“®ˆõA˜ªŽžŠú—ÕŽžžŠŠ¼) adopted on 18 April and promulgated on 10 May 1948. These articles enabled the government to impose a martial law (‰úšŽ—ß jie4yan2ling4) throughout the mainland on 10 December 1948.

The decree was extended to Taiwan and Penghu (the Pescadores) on 20 May 1949. Taiwan, occupied by ROC in 1945 but not yet legally its territory, was rife with local unrest and open rebellion against its increasingly oppressive attempts to de-Japanese the island's six million inhabitants and exploit their resources for mainlander use.

By December 1949, ROC's government and some two million mainlanders, including a number of ROC military units, had taken refuge on Taiwan. The emergency measures, which had allowed the ROC government to suppress all dissent in the name of national defense for nearly forty years, were not lifted until 15 July 1987. This is said to be the longest period of martial law in recent world history.

The lifting of martial law in ROC corresponded with the decline in power of Chiang's Kuomintang (KMT, Guo2min2dang3, GMD) dynasty. As soon as ROC formally ended its state of war with the communist party, cross-strait relations immediately improved in the form of family visitations and cultural, athletic, academic, and business exchanges.

Amendments of amendments

Since 1991, ROC has amended its constitution numerous times. Most amendements have addressed problems of domestic governance. Some, though, reflect ROC's attempts to clarify its borders in the face of PRC insistence that ROC is squatting on PRC territory.

1947 ROC constitution born
Adopted by the National Assembly on 25 December 1946, promulgated by the National Government on 1 January 1947, and put into effect from 25 December 1947.

1948 Temporary provisions begin
"Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion" were adopted on 18 April and promulgated on 10 May 1948. The provisions were added to the constitution, and essentially suspended it by way of giving the president emergency powers to deal with the communist uprising.

1987 Temporary provisions end
Temporary Provisions revamped as stand-alone law to be used in national emergenies, thus restoring the authority of the constitution. Martial law effectively lifted from 15 July 1987.

1991 1st revision
Ten additional articles added to the constitution in April 1991.

1991 Hostile regard of PRC ends
National Assembly resolves to abolish Temporary Provisions on 22 April, and "Period of Communist Rebellion" formally ends on 1 May 1991.

1992 2nd revision
Eight more additional articles added. Adopted 27 May, promulgated 28 May 1992.

1994 3rd revision
Ten additional articles replace eighteen 1991 and 1992 articles. Adopted in July, promulgated on 1 August 1994.

1997 4th revision
Seven additional articles replace ten 1994 articles. Adopted in June and July, promulgated on 21 July 1997.

1999 5th revision
Additional articles 1, 4, 9, and 10 amended. Amendments adopted 3 September, promulgated 15 September 1999.

2000 6th revision
Eleven additional articles replace the ten 1997 articles and their 1999 amendments. Adopted in April, promulgated on 24 April 2000.

2005 7th revision, first of main constitution
First revision of main body of constitution since its implementation in 1947. Proposal passed by Legislative Yuan 23 August and announced 26 August 2004. National Assembly approved proposal on 7 June 2005, and president ratified proposal on 10 June 2005. Proposal affected Articles 1, 2, 4, 5, and 8 of the constitution, and added an additional Article 12.

Nationality and race in ROC constitutions
With commentary on terminology

Chinese text

The Chinese text was cut and pasted from the Constitutional Reforms website of the President of the Republic of China and reformated for presentation here. Minor variations may be found in other web editions.

ROC publishes its laws in Big5 traditional characters. Fortunately most traditional characters are included in the Shift-JIS Japanese coding used on this website. For the few traditional characters that cannot be directly displayed, I have shown the equivalent Japanese character or a description of the traditional character in square brackets.

English translation

The English translation has also been cut and pasted from the ROC constitutional reform website. The English text is practically unchanged from versions published in earlier ROC yearbooks, one of which was consulted for purposes of comparison (China Yearbook 1963-64, Taipei (Taiwan, China): China Publishing Company, 1964, 1007 pages, hardcover, pages 868-885).


Some terms have been highlighted in color to facilitate glosses or commentary, sometimes in line, sometimes in a box following the article.

’†‰Ø–¯š Œ›–@ The Constitution of the
Republic of China
’†‰Ø–¯š ŽO\ŒÜ”N\“ñŒŽ“ñ\ŒÜ“úš –¯‘å˜ð’ʉß
’†‰Ø–¯š ŽO\˜Z”NˆêŒŽˆê“úš –¯­•{Œö•z
’†‰Ø–¯š ŽO\˜Z”N\“ñŒŽ“ñ\ŒÜ“úŽ{s
Passed 25 December 1946 (ROC 35)

Promulgated 1 January 1947 (ROC 36)

Enforced from 25 December 1946 (ROC 36)
‘æˆêÍ    ã`j Chapter I    General Provisions
’†‰Ø–¯š Šî‰—ŽO–¯Žå‹`Aˆ×–¯—L–¯Ž¡–¯‹”V–¯Žå‹¤˜aš B
Article 1
The Republic of China, founded on the Three Principles of the People, shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people.

Three Principles of the People

–¯—L–¯Ž¡–¯‹”V means "that the people possess, the people govern, and the people enjoy" -- reflecting Lincoln's "of the people, by the people, and for the people".

–¯ represents "the people" as in "the people of China". While some might take the –¯ to be an abbreviation of –¯‘° (ethnic nation), the intent is not necessarily to link "the people" with "the Chinese race" (’†‰Ø–¯‘°). However, the first of the "Three Principles of the People" (ŽO–¯Žå‹` san1min2 zhu3yi4) espoused by Sun Yat-sen (Sun Wen, 1866-1925) does imbue –¯ with racioethnic meanings.

Sun Yat-sen's "Three Principles of the People"
–¯‘° (min2zu2)   nation, people, ethnos, volk, race

The "Principle of Nationalism" (–¯‘°Žå‹`) came first because Sun's primary political aim was to overthrow the Manchu Qing Dynasty and restore political power to the true "Chinese nation" or "Chinese race" (’†‰Ø–¯‘°). In Sun's day, a "nation" was a racioethnic entity, and "nationalism" meant "national self-determination" (–¯‘°Ž©Œˆ) as a matter of racioethnic pride and destiny.

Some people want to parse the name of the Republic of China as š  (country) of ’†‰Ø–¯ (the Chinese [Han] people). However, the intended meaning appears to be –¯š  (people's country) of ’†‰Ø (China).

To the extent that Sun viewed the population of China as consisting of five ethnic nations under a single flag, –¯š  represents a plurality of "national" entities hence "republic".

Five colors and five stars

Though a publicist for Han restoration, Sun also applied the "Principle of Nationalism" to China's Mongols, Tibetans, Manchus, and Muslims. The new China would embrace the interests of all five ethnic nations -- as symbolized by the five horizontal stripes of red, yellow, blue, white, and black on the flag of the First Republic (1911-1928).

The five stars of the national flag adopted by the People's Republic of China in 1949 has one large star to the left of an arc of four smaller stars. The history of the flag is older, however, and the stars originally represented the smaller Manchurian, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Muslim nations with the larger Han nation.

Today this symbolism has fallen out of favor, as PRC currently recognizes 55 "minority nationalities" (­É–¯‘° shao3shu4 min2zu2) in addition to the Han majority and a number of unclassified people. It is now more fashionable to view the stars as representing the Communist Party as the focus of the continuing class struggle among four classes.

The four classes listed in the 1949 provisional constitution were (1) the laborer class [workers], (2) the farmer class [peasants], (3) the petty propertied class [petty bourgeoisie], and (4) the ethnonational propertied class [national bourgeoisie]. The four classes have also been more generally described as the workers, the peasants and farmers, the petty bourgeoisie and students, and the patriotic and sympathetic capitalists.

–¯Œ  (min2quan2)   people's rights, civil rights

The "Principle of Democracy" (–¯Œ Žå‹`) is literally about people's rights to govern themselves, and is therefore about the politics of self-governance. Sun sought to build a "people's country" (–¯š ) or "nationals' state" (š –¯š ‰Æ) -- a nation of people with political rights.

–¯¶ (min2sheng1)   people's lives, public welfare

The "Principle of People's Livelihood" (–¯¶Žå‹`) concerned achieving a balance of property rights with the needs of the masses. The Chinese Communist Party has credited Sun with starting a socialist revolution that didn't go far enough.

’†‰Ø–¯š ”VŽåžÜ›¢‰—š –¯‘S铁B
Article 2
The sovereignty of the Republic of China shall reside in the whole body of citizens ( > nationals).
‹ï’†‰Ø–¯š š ÐŽÒˆ×’†‰Ø–¯š š –¯B
Article 3
Persons possessing the nationality of the Republic of China shall be citizens ( > nationals) of the Republic of China.

nationality / nationals

The translation of š –¯ as "citizen" is clearly an Americanization. The term is correctly rendered "national" in the translation of the 2000 Nationality Law (see below).

š –¯ in Japanese constitution

“ú–{‘–¯ (Nihon kokumin), in the standard English translation of Japan's 1947 Constitution, is typically rendered "the Japanese people" but once rendered "the people of Japan" (Article 97), and once rendered "Japanese nationals" (Article 10).

‘–¯ is typically rendered "the People" as a synonym for "the Japanese people". ”‘–¯ is usually "all nations" or "peoples of the world" and ‘S¢ŠE‚̍‘–¯ is also "peoples of the world".

‘‰Æ, Ž©‘, and ‘¼‘ are rendered in "nation" rather than "state" or "country" metaphors.

‘–¯ is not translated "citizen" for good reason -- it literally and legally means "person(s) affiliated with a nation" or "national(s)" by virtue of possessing a state's nationality, regardless of elements of citizenship that derive from nationality and other personal traits.

Article 10 of Japan's 1947 Constitution
Article 10
The conditions necessary for being a Japanese national shall be determined by law.

The law defining "Japanese nationals" at the time was the 1899 Nationality Law, which was soon revised as the 1950 Nationality Law.

’†‰Ø–¯š Še–¯‘°ˆê—¥•½“™B
Article 5
There shall be equality among the various racial groups( > ethnic nations) in the Republic of China.

various ethnic nations

Another widely distributed version -- reflecting present-day preferences for "ethnic group" rather than "race" as a label for populations of people who are presumed to have a common ancestry, says "There shall be complete equality among the various ethnic groups in the Republic of China."

Še–¯‘° (ge4min2zu2) is also the standard designation for any or all of the racioethnic entities that compose the singular nationality of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It is typically rendered "any/all nationalities" in the English versions of PRC's constitution and laws.

PRC currently recognizes 55 "minority nationalities" (­É–¯‘° shao3shu4 min2zu2) in addition to the Han majority and a number of unclassified people. See PRC minority nationalities for further details.

‘æ“ñÍ    l–¯”VžÜ—˜‹`–± Chapter II    Rights and Duties of the People
’†‰Ø–¯š l–¯A–³•ª’j—A@‹³AŽí‘°AŠK‹‰Aê}”hAÝ–@—¥ãˆê—¥•½“™B
Article 7
All citizens [ > people] of the Republic of China, irrespective of sex, religion, race, class, or party affiliation, shall be equal before the law.

Article 14 of Japan's 1947 Constitution

Another widely distributed version says "All citizens of the Republic of China, irrespective of sex, religion, ethnic origin, class, or party affiliation, shall be equal before the law." Here, too, "race" is avoided in favor of an "ethnic origin" -- though Ží‘° (zhong3zu2) is arguably closer to lŽí (ren2zhong3).

The standard English verson of Japan's 1947 Constitution renders lŽí (jinshu) in both Articles 14 and 44 as "race".

Articles 14 and 44 of Japan's 1947 Constitution
Japanese Chinese translation
‚·‚ׂč‘–¯‚́A–@‚̉º‚É•½“™‚Å‚ ‚‚āAlŽíAMðA«•ÊAŽÐ‰ï“Ig•ª–”‚Í–å’n‚É‚æ‚èA­Ž¡“IAŒoÏ“I–”‚͎Љï“IŠÖŒW‚É‚¨‚¢‚āA·•Ê‚³‚ê‚È‚¢B
Š—Lš –¯Ý–@—¥”V‰ºˆê—¥•½“™A•sˆölŽíAM‹ÂA«•ÊAŽÐ˜ðg•ªˆ½–å‘æAŽ§Ý­Ž¡AãSàZAˆ½ŽÐ˜ð萌Wã—LŠ·•ÊB

Articles 14   (standard English translation)
All of the people are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political, economic or social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status or family origin.

Articles 14   (more accurate English translation)
All nationals [of Japan] are equal under the law, and they shall not be discriminated in political, economic or social relations, because of race, creed, sex, social status or family origin.


Article 44
The qualifications of members of both Houses and their electors shall be fixed by law. However, there shall be no discrimination because of race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income.

‘æŽOÍ    š –¯‘å˜ð Chapter III    The National Assembly

š –¯‘å˜ðˆÈ¶—ñ‘ã•\‘gD”V

  ŒÜ@‹¡‹š ŠO”Vš –¯‘Io‘ã•\A‘´–¼ŠzˆÈ–@—¥’è”VB

Article 26
The National Assembly shall be composed of the following delegates:

  1. One delegate shall be elected from each hsien, municipality, or area of equivalent status. In case its population exceeds 500,000, one additional delegate shall be elected for each additional 500,000. Areas equivalent to hsien or municipalities shall be prescribed by law;
  2. Delegates to represent Mongolia shall be elected on the basis of four for each league and one for each Special banner;
  3. The number of delegates to be elected from Tibet shall be prescribed by law;
  4. The number of delegates to be elected by various racial groups( > ethnic nations) in frontier regions shall be prescribed by law;
  5. The number of delegates to be elected by Chinese citizens ( > nationals) residing abroad shall be prescribed by law;
  6. The number of delegates to be elected by occupational groups shall be prescribed by law;
  7. The number of delegates to be elected by women's organizations shall be prescribed by law.
‘æ˜ZÍ    —§–@ Chapter VI    Legislation
Article 64

Article 64 provides for electing members of the Legistlative Yuan, including members from Mongolian Leagues and Banners, Tibet, various racial groups in frontier regions, Chinese citizens residing abroad, occupational groups, and women's organizations.

‘æˆêŽOÍ    Šî–{š ô
‘æŒÜß    ‹³ˆç•¶‰»
Chapter XIII    Fundamental National Polices
Section 5    Education and Culture
‹³ˆç•¶‰»AœäᢓWš –¯”V–¯‘°¸_AŽ©Ž¡¸_Aš –¯“¹úºAŒ’‘S铊iA‰È›{‹y¶Šˆ’q”\B
Article 158
Education and culture shall aim at the development among the citizens ( > nationals) of the national ( > ethnic) spirit, the spirit of self-government, national morality, good physique, scientific knowledge and ability to earn a living.
‘æˆêŽOÍ    Šî–{š ô
‘æ˜Zß    ç²ád’n™½
Chapter XIII    Fundamental National Polices
Section 6    Frontier Regions
š ‰Æ›”‰—ç²ád’n™½Še–¯‘°”V’nˆÊAœä—\ˆÈ‡–@”V•ÛáA•À‰—‘´’n•ûŽ©Ž¡Ž–‹ÆA“Á•Ê—\ˆÈ•}AB
Article 168
The State shall accord to various racial groups ( > ethnic nations) in the frontier regions legal protection of their status and shall give special assistance to their local self-government undertakings.
š ‰Æ›”‰—ç²ád’n™½Še–¯‘°”V‹³ˆçA•¶‰»AŒð’ʁA…—˜A‰q¶‹y‘´‘¼ãSàZAŽÐ˜ðŽ–‹ÆAœäÏ‹É¨辦A•À•}•‘´á¢“WA›”‰—“y’nŽg—pAœäˆË‘´Ÿ†ŒóA“yšß«Ž¿A‹yl–¯¶ŠˆKŠµ”VŠ‹XA—\ˆÈ•Ûá‹yᢓWB
Article 169
The State shall, in a positive manner, undertake and foster the develop of education, culture, communications, water conservancy, public health and other economic and social enterprises of the various racial groups ( > ethnic nations) in the frontier regions. With respect to the utilization of land, the State shall, after taking into account the climatic conditions, the nature of the soil, and the life and habits ( > customs) of the people, adopt measures to protect the land and to assist in its development.

the people

Here we have an example of l–¯ (ren2min2) used to mean "the people" as in expressions like "the people of ABC". It is also the "people" in "People's Republic of China" (’†‰Øl–¯‹¤˜aš ).