Status and citizenship
By William Wetherall

Rights and duties of nationals and aliens in Japan and the United States

Inhabitants of any state -- whether in the country legally or illegally -- whether nationals or aliens -- whether tall or short -- whether quick or dead -- have various rights and duties under the state's laws. National and local affiliation, sex and age, and many other status attributes determine each individual's elements of citizenship.

This feature examines the relationship between state and local affiliations in Japan and the rights and duties that come with such legal statuses, for Japanese and aliens alike. It also looks at the various legal statuses that determine suffrage and other matters in the United States, and includes a table comparing various rights and duties, and qualities of life, in Japan and the United States .

1. Affiliation and status of nationals and aliens

The articles in this part are presented in a single file with a menu at the top.

"Keywords and concepts" is a quick overview of the most important terms and ideas in the subsequent discussions of status and citizenship in Japan and the United States.

The articles under "Japan" examine (1) the legal facets of affiliation and status, (2) the territorial aspects of registration and the effects of national and local affiliation on rights and duties, (3) the expansion of eligibility to elect and be elected since the start of suffrage laws during the Meiji period, and (4) the parameters of citizenship established by the Constitution, the Local Autonomy Law, and the Public Offices Election Law.

The single article under "United States" reviews the convolutions of legal status in America's numerous subnational jurisdictions.

2. Rights, duties, and qualities of life

The "Elements of citizenship table" will open in an independent file. The table compares Japan and the United States from a number of vantage points, some related to rights and duties, others to qualities of life.