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State, 1992-1995</h1> <h3>Supreme Court confirms child's <u>jus soli</u> nationality</h3> <h4 class="gray">By William Wetherall</h4> <p><font class="cyan"> First posted 1 June 2014<br /> Last updated 21 June 2014</font></p> <hr /> <p><a class="mainlist" href="#overview"> Overview</a> &ensp;<a class="menulist" href="#origin"> Origin</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#rulings"> Rulings</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#chronology"> Chronology</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#opinion"> Quality of opinion</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#sources"> Sources, presentation, commentary</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#works"> Works cited</a><br /> <a class="mainlist" href="#judgment"> Rees v. State judgment</a> &ensp;<a class="menulist" href="#particulars"> Particulars</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#findings"> Findings</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#summary"> Summary</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#laws"> Relevant laws</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#maintext"> Main text</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#reasons"> Reasons</a> |<a class="menulist" href="#justices"> Justices</a><br /> <font class="green"> Related article</font> &ensp;<a class="mainlist" href="../nationality/Statelessness.html"> Statelessness in Japan</a><br /> <font class="green"> Related article</font> &ensp;<a class="mainlist" href="../nationality/Statelessness_treaties.html"> Treaties concerning statelessness</a></p> <hr /> <a name="overview"></a> <!-- ************************** --> <!-- OVERVIEW OF REES v. State --> <!-- ************************** --> <h3>Overview of Rees v. State, 1992-1995</h3> <p>I am calling this case "Rees v. State" after the family name of William and Roberta Rees, the adult guardians of the child plaintiff Robert Rees Andrew (0000000000000), their adopted son. The case originated in 1992 when the Rees sued the Japanese government on behalf of Andrew in what is called a "nationality confirmation" case.</p> 1991t^1g000000Nh0`000sY'`L0wΑ w\^n0ubg07un0P[n0a0k00000h0}T T 0Q#uW0_000000a000n06ro0 Nf0Q#u_0S0n0sY'`o0mo`0v}c0_00\^n0n0_N0u:uk0(WOOW0f0D0_00000N[Ye+^000U00+YYo00S0n0P[0 P[h0W0f0_M0S0zla0W0_000000a000n0QuJ\o0ubn0;S+^L0LD00 <p>In January 1991, a woman who was thought to be a Filipino gave birth to a boy, later named Andrew, in a hospital in Komoro city (\^), Nagano prefecture (wΑ w). The boy's father was unkown. and after delivering him, his mother disappeared.</p> <p>The Rees, American missionaries residing in Komoro, had decided before the boy was born to adopt the woman's child, and armed with a birth notification form on which the birth certificate part of the form had been completed by a physician at the hospital, they attempted to register the boy -- which they named Andrew -- at the Komoro municipal hall.</p> <p>The registrar regarded Andrew as a Filipino, and so registered him as an alien with Philippine nationality. However, as reported by the Rees' principal attorney, Nakagawa Akira (-N]f), when queried about the mother's identity, the doctor at the hospital said she was born on 21 November 1965 but he [presumably] didn't known her nationality.</p> <p>The Rees, needing to go to the United States on business related to their work, applied at the Philippine Embassy in Tokyo for a passport for their child but were told that they could issue one unless the mother herself applied so that the embassy could confirm her status as a Philippine citizen. As the mother's identity and whereabouts were unknown, the Rees had no choice but to regard their son as stateless, which meant more rounds between the municipal office and the regional Legal Affairs Bureau.</p> <p>Apparently Komoro officials asked the local Legal Affairs Bureau -- namely the Saku Branch of the Nagano Regional Legal Affairs Bureau, in neighboring Saku city -- for guidance regarding how to treat Andrew's registration. According to Higashizawa Yasushi (qglV), who represented the Rees with 4 other attorneys, including Nakagawa Akira (-N]f), cited the branch office's guidance as follows (Higashizawa 1993, page 164, my transcription and structural translation).</p> <table class="data wid90 white"> <tr> <td width="40"> <p>s^b Nt^NgkQe0wΑ0WelR@\POEN/e@\w,{ NS</p> <p> Nn0J\Q0Qo0StW0f0/eH0j0D00</p> <p>k0P[n0VM|o000000qQTVh0W0f0O0`0U0D00S0n0l Tk0d0D0f0o0^wL0}T TW0f0O0`0U0D00</p> </td> <td width="60"> <p>8 February 1991, Nagano Regional Legal Affair Bureau, Saku Branch Bureau Director, 3rd Instruction</p> <p>There is no objection to accepting the above [birth] notification.</p> <p>Please regard the nationality of the mother and child as [that of] the Republic of the Philippines. Concerning its [family and personal] names, please [have] the mayor of the city name [the child].</p> </td> </tr> </table> <p>Higashizawa (and others) objected that the Legal Affairs Bureau had no right to determine the mother's and child's nationality without confirmation by the Philippine government.</p> <table class="data wid90 white"> <tr><td> <h4>Regional Legal Affairs Bureaus</h4> <p>Legal Affairs Bureaus, which are part of the Ministry of Justice, handle all manner of civil matters outside the briefs of local governments. Municipal halls oversee the local enforcement the Civil Code and Family Register Law -- and, at the time (until 9 July 2011), the Alien Register Law -- among other national laws that the nationality government partly entrusts to the administration of municipal and prefectural governments . Otherwise, such laws are the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice. Hence local officials, who work for local governments and not for the national government, direct questions regarding unusual matters to an appropriate office of the Ministry of Justice, in this case the regional Legal Affairs Bureau, which deals with questions about nationality.</p> </td> </tr> </table> <p>The Saku Branch Bureau was not acting in an arbitrary manner. It reasonably assumed that the mother -- who was said to be a Filipino -- had an authentic Philippine passport. Never mind that she had run off, she was still responsible for her child's birth. And the bureau, which is the business of enforcing Japan's standing laws, expected her to follow ordinary procedures -- i.e., to file a copy of the child's birth certificate at the Philippine Embassy in Tokyo. The bureau also had good reason to expect that the embassy, following the Philippine Nationality Law, would recognize the child as a citizen of the Philippines.</p> <p>The bureau was not abusing its authority but, on the contrary, acting in accordance with normal procedure in such cases. It naturally took the position that the jus soli provision of Article 2, Paragraph 1 of Japan's Nationality Law did not apply to the woman's child because she, as its mother, was known. It also seemed that she was not Japanese, and that the child's father was not known. Hence the child's status would have to be based on the mother's home country law.</p> <p>The bureau had reason to think that the mother was a Filipino, in which case her child's nationality would be at the mercy of Philippine law. The Philippine Nationality Law, like Japan's Nationality Law, is a basically jus sanguinis law, and it was reasonable to expect that the child would qualify for Philippine nationality.</p> <p>Even had the mother not disappeared, but told authorities that the child's father was a Japanese man, unless he was her husband -- or, if he wasn't her husband, unless he came forth and recognized the child in a timely manner -- the child would not qualify for Japanese nationality. Note that Japanese law takes the husband of a married woman to be the father of any and all children she bears in the marriage, and up to 300 days after divorce or his death, and hence the father of a married woman is by definition known. The opposite assumption is made in the case of the child of an unmarried woman -- i.e., its father is by definition <i>not</i> known unless he comes forth and acknowledges his paternity.</p> <table class="data wid90 white"> <tr><td> <h4>How registrar's think</h4> <p>I personally experienced exactly how registrars think.</p> <p>Registrars are generally very familiar with the workings of Japanese status laws and ordinary legal procedure and precedent. They're not infallible, and occasionally but not often -- out of careless or ignorance, if not sometimes prejudice -- they will make mistakes. And now and then they encounter a case they've never seen before, and they have to thumb through the applicable laws and look for precedents -- or request guidance from a competent agency of the Ministry of Justice, such as a Legal Affairs Bureau or Family Court.</p> <p>Before 1985, Japan's 1950 Nationality Law was primarily patrilineal. Article 2, Items 1 and 2, father Japanese), secondarily matrilineal (Item 3, mother Japanese, father unknown or father known but stateless), and tertiarily jus soli (Item 4, child born in Japan, neither parent known, or both parents stateless).</p> <p>Because I, an American, and my then wife, a Japanese, were married, she was disqualified as a source of birthright Japanese nationality for our children, born in 1978 and 1982. Since we had decided before their birth to take the explicit sexual discrimination in the Nationality Law to court, we submitted birth notifications which we completed as though our children ought to qualify for Japanese nationality. As expected, the registrar refused to accept the notifications as submitted, at which point, at which point we asked for a formal statement indicating the legal grounds for refusal.</p> <p>Predictably, there were precisely two grounds -- (1) items 1-4 of Article 2 of Japan's Nationality Law, and (2) Article 17 of Japan's Rules of Laws (lO H&#333;rei).</p> <p>"Rules of Laws?" people will say. Every sovereign state has laws of laws, which govern private international law. Specifically, laws on conflicts of laws determine applicable law mainly on the basis of a person's nationality and residential status. At the time of the births of our children, Article 17 of Japan's Rules of Laws made the following provision for the determination of a child's nationality presumed to have been born in Japan (my structural translation)</p> <p class="center90 bcred bgyellowp"> <b>,{ASNh</b>&ensp;&ensp; P[0ZQ000&T00vQQu0vuBfk0+Y0l\000 W0l_0O00KN0[0傷0vQ+Y0P[0QuMR0{kN000000vQg_0l\000 W0l_0O00KN0[0 <br /><br /> <b>Article 17</b>&ensp;&ensp;<u>Regardless of whether a child is an issue of [it's father's] legal spouse</u>, it's [nationality] shall be determined in accordance with the laws of the country to which the husband of its mother belongs at the time of its birth. If her husband died before the child's birth, then its [nationality] shall be determined by the laws of the country to which he last belonged. <br /><br /> <font class="blue"> <u>Regardless of whether a child is an issue of [it's father's] legal spouse</u> means "Regardless of whether a child was born in wedlock" or "Regardless of a child's legitimacy" -- in other words -- "<font class="red">Regardless of whether a child's mother is married</font></font>".</p> </td></tr> </table> <p>Legal bureaucrats in the Ministry of Justice, including its many regional Legal Affairs Bureaus and their branch offices, are generally even better informed on matters of law and legal procedure and precedent.</p> <p>RESUME</p> <!-- 0]0n0_0000U00+YYo0NNn0Og00000k0LO0Nk0j0c0_0_000P[i00n0000003uˊKb0 }M0n0_0000000'YO(k0QK0Q0_0L00kL000000NK0i0F0K0 Nfg0B00S0h00kL0N}k0Kb}M0k0egj0D0h0zvLg0M0j0D0h000_0000j0O0000U00+YYo00000a0000!qVM|h0Y00S0h0k0j0c0_0L00]00~0g0n0L}}k0J0D0f00y_@b0lRS_@\h0n0g0_00D0VW0k0U00_00 RESUME at the 's birth to adopt it, and armed with a birth notification form on which the to adopt the child. who resided in Komoro After delivering who, prior to his birth, arranged for the Rees to adopt him, and then disappeared after delivering him. The Rees filed a birth notification in an attempt to secure Japanese nationality for the boy under the jus soli (right of soil) principle in Japan's 1950 Nationality Law, which states that children born in Japan become Japanese at birth if neither parent is known or if both parents are stateless. This provision was also in the 1899 Nationality Law which the 1950 law replaced.</p> <p>The municipal register, aware that the mother was a Filipino, but unable to confirm her identity other than as reported by the Rees, unable to decide how to handle the request</p> . tiffs William and adopted son assigning the name "Filipinos" to the several cases which appeared before various courts between 2003 and 2008. All involved Filipino children who claimed they qualified for Japanese nationality because their Japanese fathers had acknowledged paternity. "Filipinos" is thus intended to mean all the children favored in two Supreme Court rulings issued on 4 June 2008.</p> Supreme Court Grants Japanese Nationality to Stateless Boy MARI YAMAGUCHI , Associated Press Jan. 26, 1995 10:14 PM ET TOKYO (AP) _ Reversing a lower court ruling, Japan's top court on Friday granted Japanese nationality to a four-year-old boy born in Japan of unknown parents. The boy's case has drawn attention to the hundreds of children in Japan who have been denied citizenship by the Japanese government. Andrew Rees was abandoned as a newborn by his mother, who had registered in the hospital as a Philippine citizen. The identity of his father is unknown. William and Roberta Rees, Protestant missionaries in a small mountain town in central Japan, adopted Andrew. They applied to the government for Japanese citizenship for the child. Toshijiro Nakajima, a presiding judge of the Supreme Court, told the court that being born in Japan of unknown parents satisfied the conditions for Andrew's Japanese citizenship. After the ruling, the Rees family praised the court's decision. ``You know, you won a Japanese citizenship. You are a Japanese now,'' Roberta Rees told Andrew. ``Thank you very much,'' Andrew said, showing a victory sign. Last summer, Andrew couldn't go to the United States with his mother because he doesn't have a passport. The Philippine Embassy has refused to grant Andrew citizenship, citing lack of proof that his mother is Filipino. In February 1993, the Tokyo District Court ruled that Andrew should be granted Japanese nationality. But the Tokyo High Court reversed the decision and ruled for the government. The case has drawn attention to the growing number of babies born to illegal foreign workers in Japan. Many of them are Asian woman who work in the nation's sex industry. Unlike the United States and some European countries, Japan's nationality policy is based on blood, not birthplace. According to the law, a child born in Japan is Japanese if either parent is Japanese, or if neither parent's nationality can be identified. If a baby is born out of wedlock to a foreign mother and a Japanese father, Japanese citizenship is not granted unless the father acknowledges paternity of the child before its birth. Since Japan ended centuries of isolation in the 19th century, only a limited number of foreign professionals have been allowed to live and work here. As of last May, the Justice Ministry had counted 293,800 illegal aliens living in Japan, up 1,000 from a year ago. The ministry said there were 1,502 stateless people in Japan at the end of 1993. 2014 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed. Learn more about our Privacy Policy and Terms of Use. --> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="origin"></a> <!-- ******* --> <!-- ORIGIN --> <!-- ******* --> <hr class="blue" /> <h3>Origin of Rees v. State</h3> <p>Article 4 of the 1899 Nationality Law provided for acquisition of nationality by jus soli in cases of children born in Japan "when both the father and the mother are unknown ( 6rk0qQ0w00000 fubo ga tomo ni shirezaru toki). This provision became Item 4 of Article 2 of the 1950 Nationality Law, which became Item 3 of Article 2 in the 1985 revision of the 1950 law, both of which also state "wehn both the father and the mother are unknown" (6rkL0h00k0w0j0D0h0M0 fubo ga tomo ni shirenai toki).</p> <p>The main issue in Rees v. State was the definition of "unknown" -- i.e., "shirenai" -- which is perhaps closer to "cannot be known (ascertained)" or "are unknowable (for some reason)".</p> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="rulings"></a> <!-- ********* --> <!-- RULINGS --> <!-- ********* --> <hr class="blue" /> <h3>Court rulings in Rees v. State</h3> <p>Forthcoming.</p> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="chronology"></a> <!-- ******************* --> <!-- CHRONOLOGY OF CASE --> <!-- ******************* --> <hr class="blue" /> <h3>Rees v. State chronology</h3> <!-- <p>Rees v. State began in a family court, but the family court addressed only the question of whether or not Ko's father could have been the man to whom her mother was married when Ko was born. The family court recognized that the mother's by then former husband was not Ko's father.</p> <p>The series of rulings which ended with the Supreme Court's decision in 1997 are as follows.</p> <div class="indent"> <pre> <b>First instance court (1993-1994)</b> Court: Tokyo District Court Case: Heisei 5 (Gyo-U) 349 Litigants: Ko v. State Judgment: 28 September 1994 Ruling: Ko is not Japanese <b>Second instance court (1994-1995)</b> Court: Tokyo High Court Case: Heisei 6 (Gyo-Ko) 195 Litigants: Ko v. State (Ko appeals) Judgment: 29 November 1995 Ruling: Ko is Japanese from birth <b>Final court of appeal (1996-1997)</b> Court: Supreme Court, Second Petit Bench Case: Heisei 8 (Gyo-Tsu) 60 Litigants: State v Ko (State appeals) Judgment: 17 October 1997 Ruling: Andrew is Japanese from birth </pre> </div> --> <h3>Chronology of Rees v. State</h3> <p>The case of Andrew Rees begins with a boy-meet-girl encounter between his mother and his father. His mother is at once "known" but "unknown" woman whose identity is insufficiently known. She appears to have been a Filipino woman who had overstayed her visa, and she seems to have been working in bars and prostituting. The unknown father was probably one of her customers or lovers, and was most likely Japanese.</p> <p>The woman, expecting a child, learns that the Rees are willing to adopt a child of a person in her position, and they make arrangements for an adoption. The mother is admitted to a hospital for delivery, and she gives her name and date of birth on an admission form. However, she leaves the hospital after giving birth and cannot be found to confirm her identity.</p> RESUME <table class="data wid100"> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> Chronology of Rees v. State, 1992-1995</b></font> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="right" valign="top" width="25%"> <p>15 September 1992</p> </td> <td width="75%"> <p>The plaintiff, Ko, was born to an ROK Korean mother, Otsu, who was then married to a Japanese man, Hei. Ko's father, though, was another Japanese man, Tei.</p> <p>Tei attempted to file a notification of acknowledgement before Ko's birth. However, his acknowledgement was not recognized because, under Japanese law, a child conceived by a married woman is presumed to her husband's.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="right" valign="top" width="25%"> <p>4 November 1992</p> </td> <td width="75%"> <p>Ko's mother Otsu and her husband Hei file a notification of divorce, which is accepted and immediately effective.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="right" valign="top" width="25%"> <p>18 December 1992</p> </td> <td width="75%"> <p>A family court convenes a conciliation proceeding to establish that Hei had not been Ko's father.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="right" valign="top" width="25%"> <p>27 April 1993</p> </td> <td width="75%"> <p>The family court rules that Ko's father had not been Hei.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="right" valign="top" width="25%"> <p>2 June 1993</p> </td> <td width="75%"> <p>The family court's ruling comes into force.</p> </td> </tr> </table> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="opinion"></a> <!-- ******************** --> <!-- QUALITY OF OPINION --> <!-- ******************** --> <hr class="blue" /> <h3>Quality of Supreme Court opinion in Rees v. State</h3> <p>The judgment in this case is a wonderful example of the capacity of the Supreme Court to favor the spirit of a law over its literal interpretation. The judgment came down to the quality of what I would call the acknowledging father's MO.</p> <p>The father's motives were judged to be have satisfied the intent of the law as he had attempted to comply with its requirement for paternal acknowledgement at the earliest opportunity. In other words, the timeliness of his acknowledgement was measured -- not by the date of his acknowledgement in relation to his child's birth -- but by his sincerity in attempting to acknowledge his child at the earliest legal opportunity.</p> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="sources"></a> <!-- ************************************** --> <!-- SOURCES, PRESENTATION, AND COMMENTARY --> <!-- ************************************** --> <hr class="blue" /> <h3>Sources, presentation, and commentary</h3> <br /> <h4>Sources</h4> <br /> <h5>Received Japanese text of ruling</h5> <p>The Japanese text was extracted from a pdf file downloaded from the database accessible through the Japanese government's <a class="mainlist" href="http://www.courts.go.jp/">$R@b Courts in Japan</a> website. Most case particulars and a summary were retrieved by a query using minimum case particulars. These particulars and the summary are also shown.</p> <h5>Received English translation</h5> <p>An English version of the Supreme Court ruling in Rees v. State has reportedly been published in <b>The Japanese Annual of International Law</b>, Number 40, 1997, pages 129ff (Steele 2004, page 184, note 30). I have shown here only parts quoted by Steele and my own structural translations of these and other selected parts.</p> <h5>Structural English translation</h5> <p>Because parts of the received translation do not accurately reflect the finer details and texture of the language of the Japanese ruling, I have occasionally shown structural translations of parts that are of special interest to me.</p> <h4>Formatting, commentary, and markup</h4> <p>I have divided the judgment into sections, and have somewhat reformatted the received texts and highlighted some words and phrases to facilitate analysis and commentary.</p> <h5>Underscoring</h5> <p>All <u>underscoring</u> in the text of the judgment is as received. Unless otherwise noted, the <u>underscoring</u> of corresponding parts of the received translation is mine. All underscoring in my own commentary is, of course, also mine.</p> <h5>Parentheses</h5> <p>Unless otherwise noted, all (parentheses) in the received text and translation are as received.</p> <h5>Square and angle brackets</h5> <p>All in-line [square brackets] and &lt;angle brackets&gt; -- and everything enclosed in such brackets -- are mine.</p> <h5>Structural translations and commentary</h5> <p>My own closer (structural) translations are generally shown in <font class="blue">blue</font> in cells below the received judgment and received translation. At times I have shown closer translations of words or short phrases in-line, between right and left <font class="blue">&rarr; arrows &larr;</font> following the amended text.</p> <p>Editorial [clarifications] are shown in-line. Brief comments are sometimes boxed in the cells of the texts they relate to. Extended comments are generally shown in cells below the relevant texts.</p> <h5>Color highlighting</h5> <p>The received texts of the judgment and translation, and my own commentary, are shown in black. However, to facilitate commentary on the language of the ruling and/or its translation, I have highlighted specific words and phrases in various colors according to the following scheme, which includes in-line editorial clarifications and corrections.</p> <!-- ************** --> <!-- COLOR MARKUP --> <!-- ************** --> <table class="data wid90"> <tr class="green"> <td width="20%"><b>Color</b></td> <td width="40%"><b>Original</b></td> <td width="40%"><b>Translation</b></td> </tr> <!-- BACKGROUND HIGHLIGHTING --> <tr class="gray"> <td colspan="3"> <b>Background highlighting</b></td> </tr> <!-- BLUE --> <tr class="top"> <td class="blue"><font><b>Blue</b></font></td> <td colspan="2"> <font class="bgblue"> Corresponding parts of two or more texts selected for comparison</font></td> </tr> <!-- YELLOW --> <tr class="top"> <td class="yellow"><font><b>Yellow</b></font></td> <td colspan="2"> Content added to received text to <font class="bgyellow">reconstruct</font> a missing part</td> </tr> <!-- PINK --> <tr class="top"> <td class="pink"><font><b>Pink</b></font></td> <td colspan="2"> Transcription or scanning errors parenthetically corrected <font class="bgpink">in-line</font> <font class="blue">(sic = in-line)</font></td> </tr> <!-- GRAPHIC HIGHLIGHTING --> <tr class="gray"> <td colspan="3"> <b>Graphic highlighting</b></td> </tr> <!-- BLUE --> <tr class="top"> <td rowspan="2"><font class="blue"><b>Blue</b></font></td> <td><font class="blue">[ Clarification ]</font> <font size="1">(in-line)</font></td> <td><font class="blue">[ Clarification ]</font> <font size="1">(in-line)</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td>&ensp;</td> <td><font class="blue">&rarr; My closer translation &larr;</font> <font size="1">(in-line)</font><br /> <font class="blue">My closer translation</font> <font size="1">(boxed)</font></td> </tr> <!-- GREEN --> <tr class="top"> <td rowspan="2"><font class="green"><b>Green</b></font></td> <td>Presumed true and correct copy of the language of the original text</td> <td>May be too free and a bit off key but represents all elements or original</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="white right"> <font class="green">VM|l</font><br /> <br /> <br /> <font class="green">ӗV</font><br /> </td> <td class="white"> <font class="green">Nationality Law</font><br /> <font class="green">Nationality Act</font> <font size="1">(unconventional)</font><br /> <font class="green">Law / Act of Nationality</font> <font size="1">(unconventional)</font><br /> <font class="green">Korea</font> <font size="1">(if "Empire of Korea" 1897-1910)</font></td> </tr> <!-- PURPLE --> <tr class="top"> <td rowspan="2"><font class="purple"><b>Purple</b></font></td> <td>Problematic phrasing or usage in the language of the original text</td> <td>Imprecise or awkward, incomplete or embellished, or otherwise inadequate</td> </tr> <tr class="top"> <td class="white right"> <font class="green">VM|</font><br /> <font class="green">ӗV</font><br /> <font class="green">g</font><br /> <font class="green">Q0W</font></td> <td class="white"> <font class="purple">Citizenship</font > <font class="blue">&rarr; Nationality</font> <font size="1">(as legal status)</font><br /> <font class="purple">Korea</font> <font class="blue">&rarr; Republic of Korea</font> <font size="1">(since 1948)</font><br /> <font class="purple">Korea</font> <font class="blue">&rarr; Ch&#333;sen</font> <font size="1">(as territory 1910-1952)</font><br /> <font class="purple">Japan Proper</font> <font class="blue">&rarr; Interior</font> <font size="1">(as territory)</font></td> </tr> <!-- RED --> <tr class="top"> <td rowspan="2"><font class="red"><b>Red</b></font></td> <td>Incorrect phrasing or usage ; </td> <td>Misleading or incorrect</td> </tr> <tr class="top"> <td class="white right"> <font class="green">>ehY00</font><br /> <font class="green">1Y00</font><br /> <font class="green">g</font></td> <td class="white"> <font class="red">renounce</font> <font class="blue">&rarr; abandon, relinquish</font><br /> <font class="green">renounce, separate from</font><br /> <font class="red">Korea</font> <font class="blue">&rarr; Ch&#333;sen</font> <font size="1">(as territory)</font></td> </tr> <!-- CYAN --> <tr class="top"> <td rowspan="3"><font class="cyan"><b>Cyan</b></font></td> <td>; When original is <font class="red">incorrect</font></td> <td>Mistranslation is <font class="cyan">more correct than original</font></td> </tr> <tr class="top"> <td class="white right"> <font class="green">e,gh0<font class="red">g</font>h0n0uOT</font><br />; </td> <td class="white"> <font class="green">the <font class="red">annexation</font> of <font class="cyan">Korea</font> <font class="red">by</font> Japan</font><br /> <font class="blue">&rarr; the union of Japan and Ch&#333;sen</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="light"> <p>; &ensp; The example of incorrect <font class="red">g</font> (Ch&#333;sen) being mistranslated <font class="cyan">Korea</font> (ӗV Kankoku), thus "accidentally" correcting the usage in the judgement, can be seen in <a class="mainlist" href="../empires/Kanda_v_State_1961.html">Kanda v. State 1961</a>.</p> <p>1. While g (Ch&#333;sen) in the judgment is factually incorrect, the correct translation is "Ch&#333;sen" because that is what the original text says. Because the translators conflate "Ch&#333;sen" (g) with "Korea" (ӗV Kankoku), they habitually translate "Ch&#333;sen" as "Korea" -- which constitutes a "mistranslation" that in effect accidentally "corrects" the factual error in the original -- i.e., a double negative becomes a positive. But two wrongs don't make a right. Translators are not supposed to "edit" the content of legal briefs. They might flag a problematic expression for comment in a footnote, but the translation itself should be faithful to the original.</p> <p>2. Note that where the judgment precisely paraphrases the phrasal logic of the expression "Nik-Kan heig&#333;" (eӗuOT) [Japan-Korea union] as "X to Y to no heig&#333;" (8h09h0n0uOT) [the union between X and Y], the received translation incorrectly represents the syntactic logic of the paraphrase as "the annexation of Y by X" -- which constitutes an interpretation of the effects of the union, not its formal description <u>in Japanese law</u> -- which I underscore, because the court is making a legal, not political, argument. Historiographic "opinion" external to received text of the original judgment, and its attempt to deal with the letter and operation of Japanese law is irrelevant. A translator might say that the past is past. Treaties, laws, and ordinances of the past -- though no longer enforced -- may continue to have effect in court reviews of what I call "legacy" cases, which involve status actions in the past.</p> </td> </tr> </table> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="works"></a> <!-- ************* --> <!-- WORKS CITED --> <!-- ************* --> <hr class="blue" /> <h3>Works cited</h3> <p>The rulings in the three Rees v. State court cases understandably got quite a bit of play in newspapers in Japan, and the small but dedicated sector of the foreign press that covers social issues in Japan. The Supreme Court judgment has also gotten a lot of attention in academic journals and a number of books, mostly in Japanese, but also in English, and I would guess also a few other languages.</p> <h4>Higashizawa 1993</h4> <p>Higashizawa Yasushi (qglV) represented the Rees in the first round of litigation in the Tokyo District Court, which in April 1993 ruled in their favor, namely that Andrew qualified for birth-right jus soli Japanese nationality. The following book, published 3 months later, ends with a detailed overview of Andrew's case.</p> <p class="indent"> qglV<br /> <b>wD0en0͑w</b><br /> (_wXL0cO0NNn0j0K0n0YVNP)<br /> qgNwmf?b01993t^7g1e ,{1HrzvL<br /> 2070xxiii0000XSL,g</p> <p class="indent"> Higashizawa Yasushi<br /> <b>Nagai tabi no omoni</b><br /> (Bengoshi ga egaku / jiken no naka no gaikokujin gunz&#333;)<br /> [ The heavy baggage of a long journey<br /> (An attorney depicts / a group of foreigners in cases) ]<br /> &lt; A long journey with a burden: A lawyer's sketch of foreigners and their cases in Japan &gt;<br /> Tokyo: Kaif&#363; Shob&#333;, 1 July 1993, 1st edition<br /> 207, xxiii pages, softcover</p> <p>The 23 pages numbered in roman numerals, at and from the back of the book, are devoted to solid chapter summaries in good English -- like the &lt; provided English title &gt; on the cover. In the English summary of the Epilogue (B0h0L0M0), dated Spring 1993 (1993t^%f), Higashizawa credits "Mr. Suzuki Akihiko for helping me with translation." The fuller Japanese version credits Suzuki Akihiko (4(g-ff_) of the "O&#332;ta citizen network for living together with foreigners" (YVNh0qQk0uM00*Y0u0^l000000 Gaikokujin to tomo ni ikiru &#332; shimin nettowaaku) for his considerable exertions in checking the English summaries. Who originally wrote them, if not Higashizawa himself, is not clear.</p> <p class="center90 bcblue bgwhite">On its website, the&#332;ta Citizens Network an NGO, dubs itself "OCNet (Ohta Citizens' Network for Peoples' Togetherness)" in English. This is a not uncommon example of "duplicity" in organizational naming, avoiding -- in this case -- a faithful English rendering of the notion that the "citizens" (^l shimin) of &#332;ta ward, in Tokyo, are endeavoring to "live together" with "aliens" or "foreigners" or "outlanders" (YVN gaikokujin). <br /><br /> The term "shimin" (^l) should imply anyone, regardless of nationality, who is registered as a resident of a :Sl:uQg (ku-min-ch&#333;son) -- a ward, city, town, or village -- of prefecture in Japan. "Japanese" and "foreigners" residing in &#332;ta are already "living together" as "citizens" of the same municipal polity -- and the only certain difference between "Japanese" and "foreigners" is their nationality -- not, as the Japanese (but not the English) version of OCNet's organization description would seem to imply. <br /><br /> The English expression "Peoples' Togetherness" has heavy overtones of "racioethnic peoples". The Japanese version of OCNet's blurb underscores the "ethnic" implications of the English version by speaking of exchanges among people whose languages, cultures, and customs variously differ. The English version speaks of the twain of "Japanese" and "non-Japanese" -- which hearkens of the "we Japanese" and "foreigners" refrain.</p> <p>Andrew's case is the centerpiece of the 5th and final story (pages 161-202), which bears the following titles.</p> <p class="indent"> VM|0Bl00P[i00_0a0%`XY00!qVM|PQh0VM|x$R<br /> Kokuseki o motomeru kodomo-tachi: Ky&#363;z&#333; suru mukokuseki-ji to kokuseki kakunin saiban<br /> [ Children seeking a nationality: Rapidly increasing stateless children and nationality confirmation court cases ]</p> <h4>Okuda 1996, 2003a</h4> <p class="indent"> eY0u[_<br /> <b>[eh0VM|VSn020j0K0g0</b><br /> gexf<br /> qgN ge<br /> 1996t^10g30e RHr,{17R0zvL<br /> 206 (,ge)03 ("}_) 0000XSL,g<br /> 2003t^9g10e X܈Hr17R0zvL<br /> 207 (,ge)03 ("}_)0XSL,g</p> <p class="indent"> Okuda Yasuhiro<br /> <b>Kazoku to kokuseki: Kokusaika no susumu naka de</b><br /> [Family and nationality: In the midst of progressing internationalization] H&#363;hikaku sensho [Y&#363;hikaku library]<br /> Tokyo: Y&#363;hikaku<br /> 30 October 1996, 1st edition, 1st printing<br /> 206 (main text), 3 (index) pages, softcover<br /> 10 September 2003, Expanded edition, 1st printing<br /> 207 (main text), 3 (index) pages</p> <h5>Okuda 2003b</h5> <p class="indent"> Yasuhiro Okuda<br /> The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and Japan's International Family Law including Nationality Law<br /> <b>Zeitschrift fuer Japanisches Recht / Journal of Japanese Law</b><br /> Volume 15, Number 8, 2003<br /> Pages 88-110</p> <p>This article is an edited reprint from <b>Hokudai H&#333;gaku Ronsh&#363;</b> (S'Ylf[֊Ɩ) [The Hokkaido Law Review), Volume 54, Number 1, pages 456-429 [from higher to lower page numbers because article, in English, is published in a journal that features mostly Japanese articles on pages that run in the opposite direction].</p> <h3>Steele 2004</h3> <p class="indent"> Stacey Steele<br /> Comments on Okuda, Statelessness and the Nationality Act of Japan: Baby Andrew Becomes a Teenager and other Changes?<br /> <b>Zeitschrift fuer Japanisches Recht / Journal of Japanese Law</b><br /> Number 18, February 2005 [2004]<br /> Pages 178-192</p> <p>This article is a critique of Okuda's article.</p> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="judgment"></a> <!-- *************** --> <!-- MAIN JUDGMENT --> <!-- *************** --> <hr class="blue" /> <h3>Main judgment in Supreme Court ruling in Rees v. State</h3> <p>Forthcoming.</p> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="particulars"></a> <!-- ************* --> <!-- PARTICULARS --> <!-- ************* --> <table class="data wid100"> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="ebony"> <font size="5" class="white"><b> 2008 Supreme Court judgment in Boy v. State</b></font><br /> <font class="lemon"><b> Japanese text, English version, and commentary</b></font> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="green"> <b>Tokyo District Court</b> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="40%" valign="top"> <p>,{N[$R@b TqgN0We$R@b <br /><br /> ,{N[NNjuSs^b4(L??)?? <br /><br /> ,{N[$Rt^ges^b??t^??g??e <br /><br /> ,{N[$Rzl??</p> </td> <td width="60%" valign="top"> <p><font class="blue"> Court of first instance: Tokyo District Court <br /><br /> First instance case number: Heisei 4 [1992] (Gyo-??) ?? <br /><br /> Date of first instance decision: ?? ?? ?? [Heisei ??-??-??] <br /><br /> Ruling: ?? </font></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="green"> <b>Tokyo High Court</b> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="40%" valign="top"> <p>S[$R@b TqgNؚI{$R@b <br /><br /> S[NNjuSs^b5(L0)43 <br /><br /> S[$Rt^ges^b6t^01g26e</p> </td> <td width="60%" valign="top"> <p><font class="blue"> Court of original instance: Tokyo High Court <br /><br /> Original instance case number: Heisei 5 [1993] (Gyo-Ko) 43 <br /><br /> Date of original decision: 26 January 1994 [Heisei 6] </font></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="gray"> <p>The Tokyo High Court was the second instance court. Here it is called the "original instance court" from the viewpoint of the Supreme Court, since the case the Supreme Court was asked to review originated in the Tokyo High Court.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="green"> <b>Supreme Court</b> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="gray"> <b>VM|xNN</b><br /> <b>Nationality confirmation case</b> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="40%" valign="top"> <p>NNjuSs^b6(L0)71 <br /><br /> NN TVM|x <br /><br /> $Rt^ges^b7t^01g27e <br /><br /> l^ Tgؚ$R@b,{N\l^ <br /><br /> $R.z%R$Rzl <br /><br /> P}g4xh$R <br /><br /> $ROƖI{]0S0lƖ ,{49]1S56</p> </td> <td width="60%" valign="top"> <p><font class="blue"> Case number: Heisei 7 [1995] (Gyo-Tsu) 71 <br /><br /> Case name: Nationality confirmation <br /><br /> Date of judgment: 27 January 1995 [Heisei 7-01-27] <br /><br /> Court name: Supreme Court, Second Petit Bench <br /><br /> Type of judgment: Ruling <br /><br /> Results: Quashed original ruling and issued own judgment <br /><br /> Hanreish&#363; t&#333; [Court reports et cetera] Volume, Number, Page:<br /> Minsh&#363; [Civil Affairs decisions] Volume 58, Number 5, Page 1328 </font></p> </td> </tr> </table> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="findings"></a> <!-- ********** --> <!-- FINDINGS --> <!-- ********** --> <table class="data wid100"> <tr> <td class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> $R:yN</b></font> </td> <td class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> Findings</b></font> </td> </tr> <tr class="yellow"> <td> <b>Received Japanese text</b> </td> <td> <b>Received English translation</b> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="40%" valign="top"> <p>N0VM|lNag NSk0D0F0 06rkL0h00k0w0j0D0h0M0 0n0a</p> <p>N0VM|lNag NSk0D0F0 06rkL0h00k0w0j0D0h0M0 0k0S__00S0h0n0z<</p> </td> <td width="60%" valign="top"> <p>1. Meaning of "When the father and the mother are together unknown" in Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Nationality Law</p> <p>2. Proof of application of "When the father and the mother are together unknown" in Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Nationality Law</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"> <p>MOJ's English version of 6rkL0h00k0w0j0D0h0M0 (fubo ga tomo ni shirenai) is "When both parents are unknown". I am structurally translating the phrase as I have here because the main judgment interprets its meaning by paraphrasing it with different words, which I will also structurally render in order to facilitate their comparison (see below).</p> <p>While "unknown" is a good translation of "shirenai" (w0j0D0), this expression -- as a negative potential -- means "could not be known" despite attempts to know -- i.e., is presently unknown but could be known in the future. The negative passive "not known" would be "shirarete inai" (w00f0D0j0D0), which also stops short of declaring that something is "unknowable" no matter how much one attempts to know.</p> </td> </tr> <!-- ******************************** --> <!-- STRUCTURAL TRANSLATION MATTERS --> <!-- ******************************** --> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="white"> <h4>Structural translation</h4> <p>The <u>underscoring</u> in the received text, and in corresponding parts of the translation, reflects the received text. All <b>bold</b> or otherwise <font class="blue">highlighted</font> emphasis is mine.</p> </td> </tr> </table> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="summary"></a> <!-- ********* --> <!-- SUMMARY --> <!-- ********* --> <table class="data wid100"> <tr> <td class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> $Re </b></font> </td> <td class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> Summary of the judgment</b></font> </td> </tr> <tr class="yellow"> <td> <b>Received Japanese text</b> </td> <td> <b>Structural English translation</b> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="40%" valign="top"> <p>N0VM|lNag NSk0D0F0 06rkL0h00k0w0j0D0h0M0 0h0o006rSs0kn0D0Z000L0yr[U00j0D0h0M00D0D00B00L06rSo0kg0B00S'`L0ؚO0f000S000yr[Y00k00j0D0h0M0o00SNk0S__000</p> <p>N0VM|n0S_0;N5_Y00L00QuBfn0rlI{]0n0n06rkk0Y00,n0N`k0000>yO_ N06rSs0kL0`00g0B00K00yr[Y00S0h0L0g0M0j0D0h0$ReU000rlk0B00S0h00z </td> <td width="60%" valign="top"> <p> 1. "When the father and the mother are together unknown (w0j0D0 shirenai)" in Article 2, Item 3 of the Nationality Law says [means] when neither the father nor the mother have been specified [identified] (yr[U00j0D0 tokutei sarenai); and though the possibility is high that a certain person could be the father or the mother, when [the possibility] does not reach [the ability to] specify [identify] (yr[Y00 tokutei suru) [the person as the child's father or mother], [then] the [child] meets the requisite to the right [above] [to wit: "the father and the mother are together unknown"].</p> <p>2. In an instance in which a person (party) who asserts (claims) acquisition of nationality, demonstrated (zis</u> the father and mother cannot be done, [then one] can provisionally certify ([Y00 nintei suru) that the person meets [the] "When the father and the mother are together unknown (w0j0D0 shirenai)" [provision] of Article 2, item 3 of the Nationality Law; even though a person (party) who disputes (objects to) the [claim of] acquisition of nationality [i.e., the State], in rebuttal, demonstrates that circumstances exist which suggest that the possibility that a certain person <u>is</u> the child's father or mother is high, in the instance in which [the possibility] does not reach [the ability to] specify [identify] that the person <u>is</u> the father or mother, [the demonstration of possibility alone] cannot overturn the right (above) certification.</p> RESUME Steele 2004, page 187, and note 40, supra note 29 (page 184), The Japanese Annual of International Law, No. 40, 1997, page 130 The Act . . . provides that a child who was born in Japan shall be a Japanese national when both father and mother are unknown or have no nationality (Article 2(iii)). If the principle that the nationality of a child shall depend on the parents' nationality is to be maintained, a child whose father and mother are unknown will be stateless. Therefore, in order to prevent the occurrence of stateless persons, the . . . Act recognizes the acquisition of Japanese nationality by a child in such a situation. Therefore, "when both father and mother are unknown" in Article 2(iii) means when both father and mother are not identified. This requirement should be considered to be satisfied where a person quite possibly is the child's father or mother but cannot be definitely identified as such. for even if a person quite possibly is the child's father or mother, the nationality of the child cannot be determined on the basis of such a person's nationality, and it is not until that person is identified that the child's nationality can be determined on the basis of his or her nationality. (Note 40) Steele 2004, page 188, and note 44, supra note 29 (page 184), The Japanese Annual of International Law, No. 40, 1997, pages 130-131 It is reasonable to consider that the burden to prove the facts required by the language "[w]hen both father and mother are unknown" in Article 2(iii) should be borne by those who claim the acquisition of nationality. However, once the claimant shows that by common sense neither the father nor the mother is considered to be identifiable, judging form (sic = from) the circumstances concerning the child's father and mother including the circumstances at the birth of the child, prima facie it is presumed that the requirement of "when father and mother are unknown" is fulfilled. (Note 44) Steele 2004, page 188, and note 45, supra note 29 (page 184), The Japanese Annual of International Law, No. 40, 1997, page 131 . . . the requirement of article 2(iii) should be deemed to be met when a person quite possibly is the child's father or mother but cannot be definitely identified as such. From this it follows that if one who contests a child's acquisition of nationality only demonstrates by rebuttal that he or she very possibly may be the child's father or mother but fails to show that or she can be identified as such, then the above presumption cannot be considered to be refuted. (Note 45) Steele 2004, page 189, and note 47, author's (Steele's) translation. "On the amendment of the Nationality Act in 1985 see K. HOSOKAWA, Japanese Nationality in International Perspective, in: Ko Swan Sik (ed.) Nationality and International Law in Asian Perspective (1990), at 193." Under a system which works on the principle that the acquisition of nationality by a child is dependent upon the nationality of the parents, a child in circumstances such as these would become stateless. As such, in order to prevent the incidence of statelessness as much as possible, this [Article 2(iii)] was designed to recognise the acquisition of Japanese nationality by a child who was born in Japan in circumstances such as these. (Note 47) </td> </tr> </table> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="laws"></a> <!-- *************** --> <!-- RELEVANT LAWS --> <!-- *************** --> <table class="data wid100"> <tr> <td class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> Sgqlag </b></font> </td> <td class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> Relevant laws</b></font> </td> </tr> <tr class="yellow"> <td> <b>Received Japanese text</b> </td> <td> <b>Received English translation</b> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="40%" valign="top"> <p>VM|l2ag3S l4l,{2},{3z,{1{}GR</p> </td> <td width="60%" valign="top"> <p>Nationality Law, Article 2, Paragraph 3; Civil Matters Litigation Law, Part 2, Chapter 3, Section 1, General Provisions</p> </td> </tr> </table> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="maintext"></a> <!-- *********** --> <!-- MAIN TEXT --> <!-- *********** --> <table class="data wid100"> <tr> <td width="38%" class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> ;Ne</b></font> </td> <td width="62%" class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> Main text of the judgment</b></font> </td> </tr> <tr class="yellow"> <td> <b>Received Japanese text</b> </td> <td> <b>Received English translation</b> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" width="40%"> <p>S$Rzl04xhY000</p> <p> NJTNn0c40htSY000</p> <p>c4(uSs0 NJT(uo0 NJTNn0bh0Y000</p> </td> <td valign="top" width="60%"> <p>The original judgment [judgment of prior (i.e., second) instance = Tokyo High Court judgment] is quashed.</p> <p>The appeal [of the appellee = plaintiff in court of prior instance = State] is dismissed.</p> <p>The cost of the first [k&#333;so] appeal [to the Tokyo High Court] and the cost of the final [j&#333;koku] appeal [to this court] shall be born by the appellee [State].</p> </td> </tr> </table> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="reasons"></a> <!-- ********* --> <!-- REASONS --> <!-- ********* --> <table class="data wid100"> <tr> <td width="38%" class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> t1u</b></font> </td> <td width="62%" class="gray"> <font class="green"><b> Reasons</b></font> </td> </tr> <tr class="yellow"> <td> <b>Received Japanese text</b> </td> <td> <b>Structural English translation</b> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" width="40%"> <p>&ensp;&ensp; NJTNtNq\0u1u}P[0 T-N]f0 T'Y\ g}P[0 TqgoV0 T&T~f0 TQg NxQP[0 T\gx^_N0 Tq\ Ng}0 T\ΑvfP[n0 NJTt1u,{Nj0D0W0,{Vk0d0D0f0</p> <!-- REASON 1 --> <p>N0S[n0ilk0x[W0_0N[On0io00!kn0h0J00g0B000</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp; 00 NJTNn0ko00s^b Nt^NgVe0wΑ wSumiTS TD}T#TO$}Tubk0J0D0f0Yeg`h0W0f0R:0SQ00]0n0_NVbW0_0_0 TgNkQek0eQbW0f0 NJTN0Q#uW0_0L00 NJTNn0QuJ\0W0j0D0~0~00 TgN Nek0bW0f0Le Nfh0j0c0_00</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp; 0(N)0 NJTNn0ko00 000000% 0h0 TWNc0f0D0_0L00$}Tubk0J0D0f0S:W00 Tubk0eQbW0_00e8R0eP^Oz <p>&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp; 00(N)0 NJTNn0kn0eQbn00$}TubwTL0]0n0Ok0We0D0f0\ObW0_0000k0o00 TMR 00000-% 00ut^ge 0N]NmQNt^-fTV0t^ NNgNNe 0h0 U00f0D000</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp; 00( N)0 NJTNn0kL0eQbW0_0k0cQU00_0eQb <p>&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp; 00(V)0 NJTNn0kk0Oc0_0$}Tubn0#ufZNyfZw0_k0 NJTNn0 6rh0j0c0_0&o00 NJTNn0ko000000Ng0o0j0D0K0h0n0pSa0bD0_00</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp; 00 NJTNn0QuJ\o00 NJTNn0Q#uk0NW0_0$}Tubn0';S+^k00c0f0cQU00_0L00SJ\Qk0mNU00_0 0d[PQ P[~D}&Ns0k0ylr!n<ff 0h0LY00fbk0o00 0-A0#%CILIA0% 0L00 0! 0n0/UNn0g00 NJTNn0s(Wn0 6rkh0 P[~D}0Y00j0i0n0 L0U00f0J000]0n0r Tkk0o00 0-A0#%CILIA0% 0h0 L0U00f0D00L00S0n0 o00 NJTNn0kk0NM0mc0f0D0_0SNL0NF{W0_00n0g0B000</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp; 00 NJTNk000gn0P}g0!kn0N[L0f0K0k0j0c0_00</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp; 00(N)0e8R0@bcY00L0,gk0 NxW00F0h0Y004XTk0o00]0n0L00QeQV{tSs0l[leLGRNagN@b[n0eQV2000%$000 0\ObW00S000e8Rh0qQk0eQV[g[k0cQW0f00 Nxn03uˊ0Y00S0h0h0U00f0D00L00eQV2000k0o00N]NkQkQt^NgNVek00]n0L0000000qQTVn00000zva0zz'Y*K00eQVW0_0en02L0B000]0n0r Tkk0o0 0#E CILlIA0M0% 0h0r TL0U00f0D000S0n0k0d0D0f0o00bL0VK00n0QVn02o0j0D00</p> <div class="indent"> <pre> 0000 0 V00M|0000000 l00 T00% #%#),)! - '`00%R00sY ut^ge00N]NmQ0t^NNgNNe e8RjuS00&N NN]NNmQ v00v00IQ </pre> </div> <p>&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp; 00(N)000000qQTVk0[Y00e8RzvLn0 g!qk0d0D0f0n0gqOP}gk000p00N]NkQNt^N0gNmQe0e8RjuS&N NN]NNmQ00c0f003uˊ#%#),)!0-%2#!$/0%k0[W0f00e8RL0zvLU00f0D00S0h00 TNn0ugeue o0NNgNNeut^n02o0j0D00 g00Qu0Wo04ALAVERA .UEVA0%CIJAh02U00f0D00S0h0L0$RfW0_00</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp; 00( N)000000qQTV.UEVA0%CIJA]4ALAVERA^k0cQU00f0D00Qu<ffk0o0000000VM|0 gY00ZZYW0_06rkn0n0P[h0W0f00#ECILIA0%L00N]NmQ0t^NNgNNek00.UEVA %CIJA]4ALAVERA^k0J0D0f0QuW0_0en0 L0U00f0D00N N0SQu<ffk0 O00 0%,gN 0h0D0F0 0</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp; 00 NJTNn06r0w0KbcK00o0UO0j0D00</p> </td> <td valign="top" width="60%"> <h4>2. Concerning Article 2, item 1 and Article 3 of the Nationality Act</h4> <p>Article 2, item 1 of the Nationality Act provides that a child shall be a Japanese citizen if the father or mother is a Japanese citizen at the time of birth, applying the principle of jus sanguinis (the principle of granting nationality to a child based on the child's blood relationship with the father or mother) when determining the acquisition of Japanese nationality by birth. Therefore, if a child has a legal parent-child relationship with a Japanese father or Japanese mother at the time of birth, the child shall acquire Japanese nationality by birth.</p> </td> </tr> <!-- REASON 2 --> <tr> <td valign="top" width="40%"> <p>N0 NJTNo00e,gg0u~000]0n06rkL0h00k0w0j0D0K000VM|lN N 0l 0h0D0F00 Nag NSk0We0D0f0e,gVM|0S_W0_0h0;N5_W0f00e,gVM|0 gY00S0h0n0x0Bl0f0,g40cwW0_00</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp;0S00k0[W00S[o00MRN[On0 Nk0J0D0f00!kn0h0J00$R:yW0f00 NJTNn0ˊBl0htSY0y0M00n0h0W0_00Y0j00a00()0lNag NSn0zleL0!qVM|n0zvu0g0M00P02bkW00F0h0Y00S0h0k0B00S0h0K00Y00p00lNag NSn0 06rkL0h00k0w0j0D0h0M0 0h0o006rkk0d0D0f0n0KbcK00L0hQO0j0D00Q0g0o0j0D0L00]0n0njeL0 NASRg0B000]0n0P}g6rSs0kn0D0Z00k0d0D0f00yr[Y00S0h0L0g0M0j0D04XT0+T00n0h0Y00n0L0vS_g0B000()0W0K0W00]L0e,gVM|0 gY00S0h0n0x0Bl004k0J0D0f0o00]k0e,gVM|L0B00h0;N5_Y00L00VM|S_n09hbh0j00lk0[U00_0Nk0]L0rS_Y00N[0;N5_z </td> <td valign="top" width="60%"> </td> </tr> <!-- REASON 3 --> <tr> <td valign="top" width="40%"> <p> N0W0K0W0j0L000S[n0SNn0()Ss0()n0$Reo0/fY00S0h0L0g0M0j0D00]0n0t1uo00!kn0h0J00g0B000</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp; 00lo00Qun0Bfk06rSo0kL0e,gVlg0B00h0M00So0QuMRk0{kNW0_06rL0{kNn0Bfk0e,gVlg0B0c0_0h0M0k00]0n0P[o0e,gVlh0Y00S0h0h0W0f0D00L0NagNS0NS 0e,gg0u~00_0P[n06rkL0h00k0w0j0D0h0M00So0VM|0 gW0j0D0h0M000]0n0P[0e,gVlh0Y000n0h0W0f0D00 Tag NS 0S00o006rkn0VM|k00c0f0P[n0VM|n0S_000h0D0F0SGR0O0h00Sn00F0j0P[o0!qVM|h0j0c0f0W0~0F0n0g00g0M00P0!qVM|n0zvu02bkY00_000e,gg0u~00_0Sn00F0j0P[k0e,gVM|n0S_00_00n0g0B000]0F0Y00h00<u> lNag NSk0D0F0 06rkL0h00k0w0j0D0h0M0 0h0o006rSs0kn0D0Z000L0yr[U00j0D0h0M00D0D00B00L06rSo0kg0B00S'`L0ؚO0f000S000yr[Y00k0o00j0D0h0M000Sn0Nk0S__000n0h0Y0y0M0g0B000</u>j0\0j000B00L06rSo0kg0B00S'`L0ؚD0h0D0F0`0Q0g0o00j0J0]0n0n0VM|0MRch0W0f0P[n0VM|0[00S0h0o0g0M0Z00]0n0L0yr[U00f0R0f00]0n0n0VM|k0We0D0f0P[n0VM|0zl[Y00S0h0L0g0M00K00g0B000</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp; 00<u>lNag NSn0 06rkL0h00k0w0j0D0h0M0 0h0D0F0Nk0S__00N[L0X[(WY00S0h0n0zyO_ N06rSs0kL0`00g0B00K00yr[Y00S0h0L0g0M0j0D0h0$ReU000rlk0B00S0h00z</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp; 00S[n0ilk0x[W0_0MRN[Ok000p00 NJTNn0ko00l T0ue0y0f0o0D0_0L00]00L0w[g0B00K0i0F0K00xY00S0h0L0g0M000F0j0KbcK00o0j0O00 NJTN0Q#uW0_0pee_k0Le Nfh0j0c0_0h0D0F0n0g0B00K000>yO_ N0 NJTNn0kL0`00g0B00K00yr[Y00S0h0L0g0M0j0D00F0j0rlk0B000n0h0D0F0S0h0L0g0M000S00k0[W0f00 NJTNo00 NJTNn0kh0%,gNh0L0 TNNg0B00S'`L0B00N`0z <p>&ensp;&ensp;]0F0Y00h00 NJTNn0z </td> <td valign="top" width="60%"> &ensp; </td> </tr> <!-- REASON 4 --> <tr> <td valign="top" width="40%"> <p> V0N Nk000p00 NJTNL0e,gVM|0S_W0_0S0h00&T[W0_0S[n0$Reo00lNag NSn0ȑi(u0c0_00n0h0D0F0y0M0g0B000SUlo0$Rzlk0q_0S|0Y0S0h0L0f0K0g0B00K000S0n0p0D0F0֊eo0t1uL0B000]0n0YOn0֊ek0d0D0f0$ReY00~0g00j0O0S$Rzlo04xh0MQ0j0D00]0W0f00MR:y:yk000p00S00h0 Ten0t1un0 Nk0 NJTNn0ˊBl0[W0_0,{N[$Rzlo00ckS_h0W0f0/fY0y0M00n0g0B00K000 NJTNn0c40htSY0y0M0g0B000</p> <p>&ensp;&ensp; 00c0f00S$Rzl04xhW00 NJTNn0c40htSY00S0h0h0W00L?eNN4lNag0l4lV0kQag0 N]NmQag0 NkQVag0]NmQag0kQ]Nagk0_D00$R[hQTNn0ag00;Nen0h0J00$RzlY000</p> <p class="indent"> gؚ$R@b,{N\l^<br /> $Rw$R[00-N\0Oe!kΐ<br /> &ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;$R[00'Y0R0_N<br /> &ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;$R[009h\0͑0l<br /> &ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;&ensp;$R[00lT08O0N </p> </td> <td valign="top" width="60%"> <p>Therefore [this court, by the identical opinion [unanimous agreement] of all the justices, in accordance with the Administrative Case Litigation Law Article 7, and the Civil Matters Litigation Law Article 408, Article 396, Article 384, Article 96, and Article 89, as [stated] in the main text [of this judgment].</p> <pre> Supreme Court Second Petit Court Presiding Judge Justice Nakajima Toshijir&#333; [1925-2011] Justice &#332;nishi Katsuya [b1928] Justice Negishi Shigeharu [b1928] Justice Kawai Shin'ichi [b1932] </pre> </td> </tr> </table> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <a name="justices"></a> <!-- ********** --> <!-- JUSTICES --> <!-- ********** --> <h3>Justices</h3> <p>Forthcoming.</p> <p align="right"> <a style="text-decoration: none;" href="../nationality/Nationality_law_1995_Rees_v_State.html"> <font class="red">Top</font></a>&ensp;&ensp;</p> <hr /> </div> <!-- FOOTER --> <div id="footer"> Copyright &copy; by William Wetherall<br /> <font class="f6blue"> www.yoshabunko.com</font><br /> <!-- W3 XHTML VALIDATOR --> <a href="http://validator.w3.org/check?uri=referer"><img src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/valid-xhtml10" alt="Valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional" height="31" width="88" /></a> </div> </body> </html>