Old wine in new bottle

Japan repatriates education law

By William Wetherall

First posted 1 March 2007
Last updated 26 March 2007


Nakasone's dreams come partly true
1890 Imperial Rescript on Education
1947 Fundamental Law of Education
2006 Fundamental Law of Education


Nakasone's dreams come partly true

The Fundamental Law of Education has been controversial since its conception and birth immediately following World War II. Under the terms of surrender in 1945, Japan transferred its sovereignty to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP), General MacArthur's office, and its sovereignty was not restored until the San Francisco Peace Treaty came into effect in 1952, and it was during this period that the 1947 law was promulgated.

In 1997, on the 50th anniversary of the 1947 law, former prime minister Nakasone Yasuhiro (incumbency 1982-1987) called for its reform in an essay I have dubbed Japan as a "natural state". See also his 1997 discussion with Miyazawa Kiichi on Japan as a "practically monoethnic nation".

In this essay, Nakasone called both the 1947 education law, and the 1947 Constitution, "without nationality" (mukokuseki-teki-na) or "stateless" because they were promulgated under SCAP's direction. He began his critique of the education law with the observation that while it had the words "humanity, peace, freedom, and democracy" (jinrui, heiwa, jiyu, minshushugi), it did not have the words "state, ethnic nation, culture, history, and home" (kokka, minzoku, bunka, rekishi, katei).

Nakasone's linguistic appraisal was not entirely correct. The 1947 law did, in fact, refer to "state", "culture", and "home". It did not speak of "ethnic nation" or "history" -- but neither does the 2006 law. The new law does, however, mention "traditions" and more specifically addresses "culture" and "home".

Nakasone and Miyazawa were educated when the Imperial Rescript on Education was the moral law of the land. Both the 1947 and 2006 education laws are best understood after reflecting on the content and purpose of the rescript.

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1890 Imperial Rescript on Education

The Meiji Restoration was an exercise in nation building. Creating a state overseen by a representative government with the tenno as sovereign, and guided by a constitution and body of laws, was the easy part. The more difficult part was nationalization of the people in claimed territories.

Nationalization and education

The more difficult and essential part of the effort to turn Meiji Japan into a nation was to nationalize people throughout the prefectures and other territories of the country. On a practical level, this meant training the next generations to speak and understand the same language, behave according to the same social norms, and acquire and utilize the same knowledge and technology. On a spirital level, nationalization meant inculcating pride in the same history and traditions, and belief in the tenno as the moral center of an ethnic nation for which nationals should want to live and be willing to die.

One of the most important instruments for achieving spiritual nationalization was the "Kyoiku Chokugo" (‹łˆç’şŒę) or "Imperial Rescript on Education". The rescript was issued on 30 October 1890, one month before the Meiji Constitution (promulgated 11 February 1889) came into effect (29 November 1890). The rescript was not formally nullified until 19 June 1948 -- over one year after the 1947 Fundamental Law of Education came into effect.

When the Imperial Rescript on Education was issued in 1890, the Minister of Education instructed teachers to expound on its principles before their students. Generations of students, including Nakasone and Miyazawa, had to memorize its 315 kanji and katakata graphs -- which, in the manner of all imperial edicts, were written without punctuation or voicing.

The purpose of the education rescript was twofold -- provide the nation with a uniform standard of moral education, and establish the emperor as the nation's moral authority.

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1890 Imperial Rescript on Education

Japanese text and English translation

The Japanese text and the English translation were first cut and pasted from two of numerous postings on the Internet. Both were then edited and formated to reflect the versions confirmed against a facscimile scan of the following publication.

•ś•”Č
Šż‰p•§“Ć‹łˆç’şŒę–óŽ[
“Œ‹žF‘’č‹ł‰Č‘‹¤“Ż”Ěć̏Š
–žŽl\“ń2”N\“ńŒŽ“ń\ŽO“ú

Monbusho <The Department of Education>
Kan-Ei-Futsu-Doku Kyoiku Chokugo yakusan
<The Imperial Transcript on Education / Translated into /
Chinese, English, French, & German>
Tokyo: Kokutei Kyokasho Kyodo Hanbaijo
Meiji 42-12-23 [23 December 1909]

The scans, 16 in all, each showing two panels, presenting about 19 unnumbered pages and covers, can be viewed at, and downloaded from, the National Diet Library Digital Archive Portal [Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan Jijitaru Aakaibu Pootaru (NDL DAP)] (retrieved March 2007).

The English translation is the official translation, first published by the Department of Education in 1907. A three-page Appendix in English, titled "A Note on the English Translation" and dated 1907, concludes with the following paragraph.

Although several English versions of the Rescript exist, they have been found deficient for conveying the exact sense of the original, of which a complete literal version into any other language is indeed a matter of great difficulty. Towards the end of last year, the Educational [sic] Department seeing the possibility of improving the translation convoked a number of scholars to discuss the matter. The accompanying version is the result. The scholars thus assembled considered their work by no means perfect, as the difficulty of rendering into a foreign language all the shades of meaning found in the text is almost insurmountable; yet we feel confident that it is a great improvement on all previous versions. We now distribute copies for the benefit of those foreigners who may wish to know the principle of our moral education.

The Department of Education, Japan.

40th year of Meiji (1907).

‹łˆç’şŒę Imperial Rescript on Education
’˝ˆŇƒtƒj‰äƒJc‘cc@š ƒ’”Łƒ€ƒ‹ƒRƒgG‰“ƒjúşƒ’Ž÷ƒcƒ‹ƒRƒg[ŒúƒiƒŠ‰äƒJb–ŻŽƒN’‰ƒjŽƒNFƒj‰­’›Sƒ’ˆęƒjƒVƒe˘˘™Îƒm”üƒ’ŕZƒZƒ‹ƒnŸƒŒ‰äƒJš é“ƒm¸‰ŘƒjƒVƒe‹łˆçƒm•ŁŒš–’›‰ƒjŸƒj‘śƒXŽ˘b–Ż•ƒ•ęƒjFƒjŒZ’íƒj—Fƒj•v•w‘Š˜aƒV•ü—F‘ŠMƒV‹ą™LŒČƒŒƒ’ŽƒV”Žˆ¤Oƒj‹yƒzƒV›{ƒ’Cƒ‹Ćƒ’KƒqˆČƒe’q”\ƒ’Œ[ᢃVúşŠíƒ’ŹAƒViƒeŒö‰vƒ’œAƒ˘–ąƒ’ŠJƒLíƒjš Œ›ƒ’dƒVš –@ƒj…ƒqˆę’UŠÉ‹}ƒAƒŒƒn‹`—EŒöƒj•ňƒVˆČƒe“Všß–ł‹‡ƒmc‰^ƒ’•}—ƒƒXƒwƒVĽƒm”@ƒLƒnŕՃŠ’˝ƒJ’‰—ǃmb–Żƒ^ƒ‹ƒmƒ~ƒiƒ‰ƒX–”ˆČƒeŽ˘‘cćƒmˆâ•—ƒ’čű˛ƒXƒ‹ƒj‘Ťƒ‰ƒ“

Žzƒm“šƒn›‰ƒj‰äƒJc‘cc@ƒmˆâŒPƒjƒVƒeŽq‘ˇb–Żƒm‹äƒj…ŽçƒXƒwƒLŠ”Vƒ’ŒĂĄƒj’ĘƒVƒe•Tƒ‰ƒX”Vƒ’’†ŠOƒjŽ{ƒVƒeœĄƒ‰ƒX’˝Ž˘b–Żƒg‹äƒjŒX•žä^ƒVƒe™÷‘´úşƒ’ˆęƒjƒZƒ“ƒRƒgƒ’ŽŠôƒt

–žŽĄ“ń\ŽO”N\ŒŽŽO\“ú


Œä–źŒäŽŁ
Know ye, Our subjects:

Our Imperial Ancestors have founded Our Empire on a basis broad and everlasting and have deeply and firmly implanted virtue; Our subjects ever united in loyalty and filial piety have from generation to generation illustrated the beauty thereof. This is the glory of the fundamental character of Our Empire, and herein also lies the source of Our education. Ye, Our subjects, be filial to your parents, affectionate to your brothers and sisters; as husbands and wives be harmonious, as friends true; bear yourselves in modesty and moderation; extend your benevolence to all; pursue learning and cultivate arts, and thereby develop intellectual faculties and perfect moral powers; furthermore advance public good and promote common interests; always respect the Constitution and observe the laws; should emergency arise, offer yourselves courageously to the State; and thus guard and maintain the prosperity of Our Imperial Throne coeval with heaven and earth. So shall ye not only be Our good and faithful subjects, but render illustrious the best traditions of your forefathers.

The Way here set forth is indeed the teaching bequeathed by Our Imperial Ancestors, to be observed alike by Their Descendants and the subjects, infallible for all ages and true in all places. It is Our wish to lay it to heart in all reverence, in common with you, Our subjects, that we may all thus attain to the same virtue.


The 30th day of the 10th month of the 23rd year of Meiji.
[30 October 30 1890]

(Imperial Sign Manual. Imperial Seal.)
[Imperial Name (brushed) / Imperial Seal (affixed)]

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1947 Fundamental Law of Education

When Hirohito's political authority collapsed in 1945, one of the first things targeted for overhaul by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) was national education. SCAP immediately banned the education rescript, and the Diet formally abolished it on 19 June 1948, over a year after the SCAP-inspired Fundamental Law of Education came into effect on 31 March 1947.

Some elements of the 1947 education law reflect the radical shift in status of people with Japanese nationality from "shumin" (subject) under the 1890 Constitution and the 1890 Imperial Rescript on Education -- to "kokumin" (national) under the 1947 Constitution. Other elements reflect the change in status of individuals and women under postwar family law, as embodied in the 1947 Constitution and in 1947 and later revisions of the Civil Code.

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1947 Fundamental Law of Education

Japanese text

The Japanese text is a reformated version of a copy posted on the Ministry of Education website -- except that I have corrected •–§ŠúŠÔ to •–§ŒÚ–â (Sumitsu Komon, Privy Council) in the front matter.

English translation

The translation of the front matter, shown in purple, is mine. The translation of the main body of the law is a reformatted version of the text appearing in FY2005 White Paper on Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Chapter 1 (Promoting Educational Reform), Part 3 (How the Fundamental Law of Education Befitting to the New Times should be), on the MEXT website.

I have checked the MEXT version against other sources, including UNESCO. One early (contemporary) source is General Headquarters, SCAP, CIE, Education in the New Japan, Volume 2, Tokyo, 1948, pages 109-111.

‹Œ‹łˆçŠî–{–@ Old Fundamental Law of Education
ş˜a“ń\“ń”NŽOŒŽŽO\ˆę“ú
–@—Ľ‘ć“ń\ŒÜ†
ş˜a“ń\“ń”NŽOŒŽŽO\ˆę“ú Ž{s
Law No. 25, 31 March 1947

Enforced 31 March 1947

Date of enforcement

The 1947 Constitution, though promulgated 3 November 1946, did not come into effect until 3 May 1947 -- about a month later. Hence the 1890 Meiji Constitution was still in effect. The Diet was still the Imperial Diet. New laws, including the new Constitution, were still subject to sanctioniong and promulgation by the emperor.

’˝‚́A•–§ŒÚ–â‚ĚŽćm‚đŒo‚āA’鍑‹c‰ď‚Ě‹ŚŽ^‚đŒo‚˝‹łˆçŠî–{–@‚đŮ‰Â‚ľA‚ą‚ą‚É‚ą‚ę‚đŒö•z‚š‚ľ‚ß‚éB I [the emperor] sanction the Fundamental Law of Education which, having passed the consulation of the Privy Council, has passed the approval of the Imperial Diet, and herein promulgate it.
‚í‚ę‚ç‚́A‚ł‚Ť‚ɁA“ú–{‘Œ›–@‚đŠm’č‚ľA–ŻŽĺ“I‚Ĺ•ś‰ť“I‚ȍ‘‰Ć‚đŒšÝ‚ľ‚āA˘ŠE‚Ě•˝˜a‚Ɛl—Ţ‚Ě•ŸŽƒ‚ɍvŒŁ‚ľ‚悤‚Ć‚ˇ‚錈ˆÓ‚đŽŚ‚ľ‚˝B‚ą‚Ě—‘z‚ĚŽŔŒť‚́AŞ–{‚É‚¨‚˘‚Ä‹łˆç‚̗͂ɂ܂‚ׂŤ‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB

‚í‚ę‚ç‚́AŒÂl‚Ě‘¸Œľ‚đd‚ń‚śA^—‚Ć•˝˜a‚đŠó‹‚ˇ‚élŠÔ‚ĚˆçŹ‚đŠú‚ˇ‚é‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁA••Ő“I‚É‚ľ‚Ä‚ľ‚Š‚ŕŒÂŤ‚ä‚˝‚Š‚Č•ś‰ť‚Ě‘n‘˘‚đ‚ß‚´‚ˇ‹łˆç‚𕁋y“O’ę‚ľ‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

‚ą‚ą‚ɁA“ú–{‘Œ›–@‚̐¸_‚É‘Ľ‚čA‹łˆç‚Ě–Ú“I‚𖞎Ś‚ľ‚āAV‚ľ‚˘“ú–{‚Ě‹łˆç‚ĚŠî–{‚đŠm—§‚ˇ‚é‚˝‚߁A‚ą‚Ě–@—Ľ‚𐧒股‚éB
Having established the Constitution of Japan, we have shown our resolution to contribute to the world and welfare of humanity by building a democratic and cultural state. The realization of this idea shall depend fundamentally on the power of education.

We shall esteem individual dignity and endeavor to bring up the people who love truth and peace, while education aimed at the creation of culture, general and rich in individuality, shall be spread far and wide.

We hereby enact this Law, in accordance with the spirit of the Constitution of Japan, with a view to clarifying the aim of education and establishing the aim of education and establishing the foundation of education for new Japan.
‘ćˆęđ    (‹łˆç‚Ě–Ú“I)

‹łˆç‚́AlŠi‚ĚŠŽŹ‚đ‚ß‚´‚ľA•˝˜a“I‚ȍ‘‰Ć‹y‚юЉď‚ĚŒ`ŹŽŇ‚Ć‚ľ‚āA^—‚Ɛł‹`‚đˆ¤‚ľAŒÂl‚̉ż’l‚đ‚˝‚Â‚Ć‚ŃA‹Î˜J‚ƐӔC‚đd‚ń‚śAŽŠŽĺ“I¸_‚ɏ[‚ż‚˝Sg‚Ć‚ŕ‚ÉŒ’N‚ȍ‘–Ż‚ĚˆçŹ‚đŠú‚ľ‚čs‚í‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 1    (Aim of Education)

Education shall aim at the full development of personality, striving for the rearing of the people, sound in mind and body, who shall love truth and justice, esteem individual value, respect labor and have a deep sense of responsibility, and be imbued with the independent spirit, as builders of peaceful state and society.
‘ć“ńđ    (‹łˆç‚Ě•űj)

‹łˆç‚Ě–Ú“I‚́A‚ ‚ç‚ä‚é‹@‰ď‚ɁA‚ ‚ç‚ä‚éęŠ‚É‚¨‚˘‚ÄŽŔŒť‚ł‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B‚ą‚Ě–Ú“I‚đ’BŹ‚ˇ‚é‚˝‚߂ɂ́AŠw–â‚ĚŽŠ—R‚đ‘¸d‚ľAŽŔŰśŠˆ‚É‘Ś‚ľAŽŠ”­“I¸_‚đ—{‚˘AŽŠ‘ź‚ĚŒhˆ¤‚Ć‹Ś—Í‚É‚ć‚‚āA•ś‰ť‚Ě‘n‘˘‚Ć”­“W‚ɍvŒŁ‚ˇ‚é‚悤‚É“w‚ß‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 2    (Educational Principle)

The aim of education shall realized on all occasions and in all places. In order to achieve the aim, we shall endeavor to contribute to the creation and development of culture by mutual esteem and cooperation, respecting academic freedom, having a regard to actual life and cultivating a spontaneous spirit.
‘ćŽOđ    (‹łˆç‚Ě‹@‰ď‹Ď“™)

‚ˇ‚ׂč‘–Ż‚́A‚Đ‚Ć‚ľ‚­A‚ť‚Ě”\—͂ɉž‚¸‚é‹łˆç‚đŽó‚Ż‚é‹@‰ď‚đ—^‚Ś‚ç‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚‚āAlŽíAMđAŤ•ĘAŽĐ‰ď“Ig•ŞAŒoĎ“I’nˆĘ–”‚Í–ĺ’n‚É‚ć‚‚āA‹łˆçăˇ•Ę‚ł‚ę‚Č‚˘B

(2) ‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A”\—Í‚Ş‚ ‚é‚É‚ŕ‚Š‚Š‚í‚炸AŒoĎ“I——R‚É‚ć‚‚ďCŠw˘“ď‚Ȏ҂ɑ΂ľ‚āA§Šw‚Ě•ű–@‚đu‚ś‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 3    (Equal Opportunity of Education)

The people shall all be given equal opportunities of receiving education according to their ability, and they shall not be subject to educational discrimination on account of race, creed, sex, social status, economic position, or family origin.

2. The state and local public corporations shall take measures to give financial assistance to those who have, in spite of their ability, difficulty in receiving education for economic reasons.
‘ćŽlđ    (‹`–ą‹łˆç)

‘–Ż‚́A‚ť‚Ě•ŰŒě‚ˇ‚éŽq—‚ɁA‹ă”N‚Ě•’Ę‹łˆç‚đŽó‚Ż‚ł‚š‚é‹`–ą‚𕉂¤B

(2) ‘–”‚Í’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂̐ݒu‚ˇ‚éŠwZ‚É‚¨‚Ż‚é‹`–ą‹łˆç‚ɂ‚˘‚ẮAŽö‹Ć‰Č‚́A‚ą‚ę‚đ’ĽŽű‚ľ‚Č‚˘B
Article 4    (Compulsory Education)

The people shall be obligated to have boys and girls under their protection receive nine years' general education.

2. No tuition fee shall be charged for general education in schools established by the state and local bodies.
‘ćŒÜđ    (’j—‹¤Šw)

’j—‚́AŒÝ‚ÉŒhˆ¤‚ľA‹Ś—Í‚ľ‡‚í‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚‚āA‹łˆçă’j—‚Ě‹¤Šw‚́A”F‚ß‚ç‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 5    (Coeducation)

Men and women shall esteem and cooperate with each other. Coeducation, therefore, shall be recognized in education.
‘ć˜Zđ    (ŠwZ‹łˆç)

–@—Ľ‚É’č‚ß‚éŠwZ‚́AŒö‚̐ŤŽż‚đ‚ŕ‚‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚‚āA‘–”‚Í’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘Ě‚ĚŠOA–@—Ľ‚É’č‚ß‚é–@l‚Ě‚Ý‚ŞA‚ą‚ę‚đÝ’u‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚Ş‚Ĺ‚Ť‚éB

(2) –@—Ľ‚É’č‚ß‚éŠwZ‚Ě‹łˆő‚́A‘S‘Ě‚Ě•ňŽdŽŇ‚Ĺ‚ ‚‚āAŽŠŒČ‚ĚŽg–˝‚𮩩o‚ľA‚ť‚̐EÓ‚̐‹s‚É“w‚ß‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B‚ą‚Ě‚˝‚߂ɂ́A‹łˆő‚̐g•Ş‚́A‘¸d‚ł‚ęA‚ť‚̑Ғʂ̒ʐł‚ށAŠú‚š‚ç‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 6    (School education)

The schools prescribed by law shall be of public nature and, besides the state and local bodies, only the juridical persons prescribed by shall be entitled to establish such schools.

2. Teachers of the schools prescribed by law shall be servants of the whole community. They shall be conscious of their mission and endeavor to discharge their duties. For this purpose, the status of teachers shall be respected and their fair and appropriate treatment shall be secured.
‘掾đ    (ŽĐ‰ď‹łˆç)

‰Ć’ë‹łˆç‹y‚Ń‹Î˜J‚̏ꏩ‚ť‚Ě‘źŽĐ‰ď‚É‚¨‚˘‚čs‚í‚ę‚é‹łˆç‚́A‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂ɂ悂輪コ‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

(2) ‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A}‘ŠŮA”Ž•¨ŠŮAŒö–ŻŠŮ“™‚ĚŽ{Ý‚̐ݒuAŠwZ‚ĚŽ{Ý‚Ě—˜—p‚ť‚Ě‘ź“K“–‚Č•ű–@‚É‚ć‚‚ċłˆç‚Ě–Ú“I‚ĚŽŔŒť‚É“w‚ß‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 7    (Social Education)

The state and local bodies shall encourage home education and education carried out in places of work or elsewhere in society.

2. The state and local bodies shall endeavor to attain the aim of education by the establishment of such institutions and as libraries, museums, citizens' public halls, et cetera, by the utilization of school institutions, and by other appropriate methods.
‘攪ô    (­ŽĄ‹łˆç)

—ÇŽŻ‚ ‚éŒö–Ż‚˝‚é‚É•K—v‚Ȑ­ŽĄ“I‹ł—{‚́A‹łˆçă‚ą‚ę‚đ‘¸d‚ľ‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

(2) –@—Ľ‚É’č‚ß‚éŠwZ‚́A“Á’č‚̐­“}‚đŽxŽ‚ľA–”‚Í‚ą‚ę‚É”˝‘΂ˇ‚é‚˝‚߂̐­ŽĄ‹łˆç‚ť‚Ě‘ź­ŽĄ“IŠˆ“Ž‚đ‚ľ‚Ä‚Í‚Č‚ç‚Č‚˘B
Article 8    (Political Education)

The political knowledge necessary for intelligent citizenship shall be valued in education.

2. The schools prescribed by law shall refrain from political education or other political activities for against any political party.
‘ć‹ăđ    (@‹ł‹łˆç)

@‹ł‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚銰—e‚Ě‘Ô“x‹y‚я@‹ł‚̎ЉŠˆ‚É‚¨‚Ż‚é’nˆĘ‚́A‹łˆçă‚ą‚ę‚đ‘¸d‚ľ‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

(2) ‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘Ě‚ŞÝ’u‚ˇ‚éŠwZ‚́A“Á’č‚̏@‹ł‚Ě‚˝‚ß‚Ě@‹ł‹łˆç‚ť‚Ě‘źA@‹ł“IŠˆ“Ž‚đ‚ľ‚Ä‚Í‚Č‚ç‚Č‚˘B
Article 9    (Religious Education)

The attitude of religious tolerance and the position of religion in the social life shall be valued in education.

2. The schools established by the state and local public bodies shall refrain from religious education or the activities for specified religion.
‘ć\đ    (‹łˆçs­)

‹łˆç‚́A•s“–‚ČŽx”z‚É•ž‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚Č‚­A‘–Ż‘S‘̂ɑ΂ľ’źÚ‚ɐӔC‚đ•‰‚Â‚Äs‚í‚ę‚é‚ׂŤ‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB

(2) ‹łˆçs­‚́A‚ą‚ĚŽŠŠo‚Ě‚ŕ‚ƂɁA‹łˆç‚Ě–Ú“I‚đ‹s‚ˇ‚é‚É•K—v‚ȏ”đŒ‚̐Ž”őŠm—§‚đ–Ú•W‚Ć‚ľ‚čs‚í‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 10    (School Administration)

Education shall not be subject to improper control, but shall be directly responsible to the whole people.

2. School administration shall, on the basics of this realization, aim at the adjustment and establishment of the various conditions required for the pursuit of the aim of education.
‘ć\ˆęđ    (•â‘Ľ)

‚ą‚Ě–@—Ľ‚ÉŒf‚°‚鏔đ€‚đŽŔŽ{‚ˇ‚é‚˝‚ß‚É•K—v‚Ş‚ ‚éę‡‚ɂ́A“K“–‚Č–@—߂ސ§’č‚ł‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 11    (Additional Rule)

In case of necessity appropriate laws shall be enacted to carry the foregoing stipulations into effect.
•‘Ľ Supplementary Provision
‚ą‚Ě–@—Ľ‚́AŒö•z‚Ě“ú‚Š‚çA‚ą‚ę‚đŽ{s‚ˇ‚éB This present law shall come into force as from the date of its promulgation.

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2006 Fundamental Law of Education

The 1947 education law had been a bone of contention among the more conservative representatives of Japan's postwar government since SCAP had it introduced as a bill into the Imperial Diet. During the 1980s and 1990s, corresponding with the incumbency and influence of Nakasone Yasuhiro, old and new conservatives stepped up their blame of a number of social problems on the Americanization of postwar education, contending that emphasis on nuclear families and individuals had undermined the integrity of the extended family and larger community and otherwise weakened Japan socially.

A bill to revise the SCAP-inspired 1947 law was pushed through the Diet in 2006 after Abe Shinzo became prime minister and appointed Ibuki Bunmei as education minister. A bill was passed into law on 15 December that year, and the new law came into effect on 22 December.

Legal concern about new law

The new education law does not, on the surface, seem to threaten or otherwise undermine the principles of the old law. It retains most of the phrasing of the old law while adding and clarifying goals intended to help restore the nation's spiritual and social health -- and foster some degree of localization.

Some legalists fear the 2006 law gives education bureaucrats more authority to arbitrarily enforce whatever curriculum or practices they consider appropriate. Attention is drawn to differences in Article 10 in the 1947 law and the equivalent Article 16 in the 2006 law.

Article 16 begins, verbatim, with the phrasing of Articles 10, which stipulates that "Education shall not be subject to improper control." Whereas the 1947 law then provides that "[education] shall be directly responsible to the whole people" (standard translation), the 2006 law then provides that "[education] shall be conducted in accordance with this and other laws, and education administration must be carried out impartially and reasonably under appropriate division of roles and mutual cooperation between the state [country] and local public bodies" (my translation).

The will of the people

So the new education law continues to tether schools to the rule of law as distinct from administrative guidance. On top of this, it also now permits more localization of education administration.

The real problem with the new law is less its content and more the will of the people. The question only time will answer is whether Japan's sovereign nationals, and their elected representatives, will support education bureaucrats, nationally and locally, who may now attempt to promote blind patriotism, suppression of free thought, and oppression of religions and ethnic minorities in schools.

Top  

2006 Fundamental Law of Education

Japanese text

The Japanese text is a reformated version of a copy posted on the Ministry of Education website.

Articles carried over from the 1947 are shown in blue. Changes in carried-over articles are shown in red.

English translation

Translations of selected articles, whether new or carried-over, are mine (William Wetherall).

‹łˆçŠî–{–@ Fundamental Law of Education
•˝Ź\”Ş”N\“ńŒŽ\ŒÜ“ú
‘ć•S˜Z\ŒÜ‰ń—ŐŽž‘‰ď‚É‚¨‚˘‚ĐŹ—§

–@—Ľ‘ć•S“ń\0† •˝Ź\”Ş”N\“ńŒŽ“ń\“ń“ú Œö•z
•˝Ź\”Ş”N\“ńŒŽ“ń\“ń“ú Ž{s

ş˜a“ń\“ń”N–@—Ľ‘ć“ń\ŒÜ†i‹Œ–@j‚Ě‘S•”‚đ‰üł‚ľ‚˝B
Approved in 165th Extraordinary Session of the Diet
15 December 2006

Law No. 120
Promulgated 22 December 2006
Enforced from 22 December 2006

Entirely revises Law No. 25 of 1947 (Old Law)
‘O•ś Preface
‰äX“ú–{‘–Ż‚́A‚˝‚ä‚Ü‚Ę“w—Í‚É‚ć‚Á‚Ä’z‚˘‚Ä‚Ť‚˝–ŻŽĺ“I‚Ĺ•ś‰ť“I‚ȍ‘‰Ć‚đX‚É”­“W‚ł‚š‚é‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁA˘ŠE‚Ě•˝˜a‚Ɛl—Ţ‚Ě•ŸŽƒ‚ĚŒüă‚ɍvŒŁ‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚đŠč‚¤‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB‰äX‚́A‚ą‚Ě—‘z‚đŽŔŒť‚ˇ‚é‚˝‚߁AŒÂl‚Ě‘¸Œľ‚đd‚ń‚śA^—‚Ɛł‹`‚đŠó‹‚ľAŒö‹¤‚̐¸_‚𑸂сA–L‚Š‚ȐlŠÔŤ‚Ć‘n‘˘Ť‚đ”ő‚Ś‚˝lŠÔ‚ĚˆçŹ‚đŠú‚ˇ‚é‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁA“`“‚đŒpł‚ľAV‚ľ‚˘•ś‰ť‚Ě‘n‘˘‚đ–ÚŽw‚ˇ‹łˆç‚𐄐i‚ˇ‚éB‚ą‚ą‚ɁA‰äX‚́A“ú–{‘Œ›–@‚̐¸_‚É‚Ě‚Á‚Ć‚čA‰ä‚ލ‘‚Ě–˘—ˆ‚đŘ‚č‘ń‚­‹łˆç‚ĚŠî–{‚đŠm—§‚ľA‚ť‚̐U‹ť‚đ}‚é‚˝‚߁A‚ą‚Ě–@—Ľ‚𐧒股‚éB

‘ćˆęÍ
‹łˆç‚Ě–Ú“I‹y‚Ń—”O
Chapter 1
Aims and ideals of education
‘ćˆęđ    (‹łˆç‚Ě–Ú“I)

‹łˆç‚́AlŠi‚ĚŠŽŹ‚đ–ÚŽw‚ľA•˝˜a‚Ĺ–ŻŽĺ“I‚ȍ‘‰Ć‹y‚юЉď‚ĚŒ`ŹŽŇ‚Ć‚ľ‚Ä•K—v‚ČŽ‘Žż‚đ”ő‚Ś‚˝Sg‚Ć‚ŕ‚ÉŒ’N‚ȍ‘–Ż‚ĚˆçŹ‚đŠú‚ľ‚čs‚í‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 1    Aim of education

Education must aim at finishing character, and must be carried out with the resolve of nurturing nationals sound in both mind and body, equipped with qualities essential as makers of a peaceful and democratic state and society. (WW)
‘ćƒjđ    (‹łˆç‚Ě–Ú•W)

‹łˆç‚́A‚ť‚Ě–Ú“I‚đŽŔŒť‚ˇ‚é‚˝‚߁AŠw–â‚ĚŽŠ—R‚đ‘¸d‚ľ‚‚AŽŸ‚ÉŒf‚°‚é–Ú•W‚đ’BŹ‚ˇ‚é‚悤s‚í‚ę‚é‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ć‚ˇ‚éB

‚P@•L‚˘’mŽŻ‚Ć‹ł—{‚đg‚É•t‚ŻA^—‚đ‹‚ß‚é‘Ô“x‚đ—{‚˘A–L‚Š‚Čî‘€‚Ć“š“żS‚đ”|‚¤‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁAŒ’‚â‚Š‚Ȑg‘Ě‚đ—{‚¤‚ą‚ƁB

‚Q@ŒÂl‚̉ż’l‚đ‘¸d‚ľ‚āA‚ť‚Ě”\—Í‚đL‚΂ľA‘n‘˘Ť‚đ”|‚˘AŽŠŽĺ‹y‚ŃŽŠ—Ľ‚̐¸_‚đ—{‚¤‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁAE‹Ć‹y‚ѐśŠˆ‚Ć‚ĚŠÖ˜A‚đdŽ‹‚ľA‹Î˜J‚đd‚ń‚¸‚é‘Ô“x‚đ—{‚¤‚ą‚ƁB

‚R@ł‹`‚ƐӔCA’j—‚Ě•˝“™AŽŠ‘ź‚ĚŒhˆ¤‚Ć‹Ś—Í‚đd‚ń‚¸‚é‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁAŒö‹¤‚̐¸_‚ÉŠî‚Ă‚ŤAŽĺ‘Ě“I‚ɎЉď‚ĚŒ`Ź‚ÉŽQ‰ć‚ľA‚ť‚Ě”­“W‚ÉŠń—^‚ˇ‚é‘Ô“x‚đ—{‚¤‚ą‚ƁB

‚S@ś–˝‚𑸂сAŽŠ‘R‚đ‘ĺŘ‚É‚ľAŠÂ‹Ť‚Ě•Ű‘S‚ÉŠń—^‚ˇ‚é‘Ô“x‚đ—{‚¤‚ą‚ƁB

‚T@“`“‚Ć•ś‰ť‚đ‘¸d‚ľA‚ť‚ę‚ç‚đ‚Í‚Ž‚­‚ń‚Ĺ‚Ť‚˝‰ä‚ލ‘‚Ć‹˝“y‚đˆ¤‚ˇ‚é‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁA‘ź‘‚đ‘¸d‚ľA‘ŰŽĐ‰ď‚Ě•˝˜a‚Ć”­“W‚ÉŠń—^‚ˇ‚é‘Ô“x‚đ—{‚¤‚ą‚ƁB
Article 2    Goals of education




























5. Cultivation of an attitude that would respect other countries, and contribute to the development of peace in international society, while loving our country and provinces, which have come to respect tradition and culture, and fosters them. (WW)
‘ćŽOđ    (śŠUŠwK‚Ě—”O)

‘–Żˆęlˆęl‚ށAŽŠŒČ‚̐lŠi‚𖁂ŤA–L‚Š‚Ȑlś‚đ‘—‚é‚ą‚Ć‚Ş‚Ĺ‚Ť‚é‚悤A‚ť‚̐śŠU‚É‚í‚˝‚Á‚āA‚ ‚ç‚ä‚é‹@‰ď‚ɁA‚ ‚ç‚ä‚éęŠ‚É‚¨‚˘‚ÄŠwK‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚Ş‚Ĺ‚ŤA‚ť‚̐Ź‰Ę‚đ“KŘ‚ɐś‚Š‚ˇ‚ą‚Ć‚Ě‚Ĺ‚Ť‚éŽĐ‰ď‚ĚŽŔŒť‚ސ}‚ç‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 3   

‘ćŽlđ    (‹łˆç‚Ě‹@‰ď‹Ď“™)

‚ˇ‚ׂč‘–Ż‚́A‚Đ‚Ć‚ľ‚­A‚ť‚Ě”\—͂ɉž‚ś‚˝‹łˆç‚đŽó‚Ż‚é‹@‰ď‚đ—^‚Ś‚ç‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃ炸AlŽíAMđAŤ•ĘAŽĐ‰ď“Ig•ŞAŒoĎ“I’nˆĘ–”‚Í–ĺ’n‚É‚ć‚Á‚āA‹łˆçăˇ•Ę‚ł‚ę‚Č‚˘B

‚Q@‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́AáŠQ‚Ě‚ ‚éŽŇ‚ށA‚ť‚̏áŠQ‚̏ó‘Ԃɉž‚śA\•Ş‚Č‹łˆç‚đŽó‚Ż‚ç‚ę‚é‚悤A‹łˆçă•K—v‚ČŽx‰‡‚đu‚ś‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

‚R@‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A”\—Í‚Ş‚ ‚é‚É‚ŕ‚Š‚Š‚í‚炸AŒoĎ“I——R‚É‚ć‚Á‚ďCŠw‚ލ˘“ď‚Ȏ҂ɑ΂ľ‚āA§Šw‚Ě‘[’u‚đu‚ś‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 4    Equal opportunity of education

All nationals, equally, must be given opportunities to receive an education that accords with their ability, and they shall not be discriminated educationally on account of race, creed, sex, social status, economic position, or family origin. (WW)
‘ć“ńÍ
‹łˆç‚ĚŽŔŽ{‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éŠî–{
Chapter 2
‘ćŒÜđ    (‹`–ą‹łˆç)

‘–Ż‚́A‚ť‚Ě•ŰŒě‚ˇ‚éŽq‚ɁA•Ę‚É–@—Ľ‚Ĺ’č‚ß‚é‚Ć‚ą‚ë‚É‚ć‚čA•’Ę‹łˆç‚đŽó‚Ż‚ł‚š‚é‹`–ą‚𕉂¤B

‚Q@‹`–ą‹łˆç‚Ć‚ľ‚čs‚í‚ę‚镁’Ę‹łˆç‚́AŠeŒÂl‚Ě—L‚ˇ‚é”\—Í‚đL‚΂ľ‚‚ŽЉď‚É‚¨‚˘‚ÄŽŠ—§“I‚ɐś‚Ť‚éŠî‘b‚đ”|‚˘A‚Ü‚˝A‘‰Ć‹y‚юЉď‚ĚŒ`ŹŽŇ‚Ć‚ľ‚Ä•K—v‚Ć‚ł‚ę‚éŠî–{“I‚ČŽ‘Žż‚đ—{‚¤‚ą‚Ć‚đ–Ú“I‚Ć‚ľ‚čs‚í‚ę‚é‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ć‚ˇ‚éB

‚R@‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A‹`–ą‹łˆç‚Ě‹@‰ď‚đ•Űá‚ľA‚ť‚̐…€‚đŠm•Ű‚ˇ‚é‚˝‚߁A“KŘ‚Č–đŠ„•Ş’S‹y‚Ń‘ŠŒÝ‚Ě‹Ś—͂̉şA‚ť‚ĚŽŔŽ{‚ɐӔC‚𕉂¤B

‚S@‘–”‚Í’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂̐ݒu‚ˇ‚éŠwZ‚É‚¨‚Ż‚é‹`–ą‹łˆç‚ɂ‚˘‚ẮAŽö‹Ć—ż‚đ’ĽŽű‚ľ‚Č‚˘B
Article 5   

‘ć˜Zđ    (ŠwZ‹łˆç)

–@—Ľ‚É’č‚ß‚éŠwZ‚́AŒö‚̐ŤŽż‚đ—L‚ˇ‚é‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚Á‚āA‘A’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘Ě‹y‚Ń–@—Ľ‚É’č‚ß‚é–@l‚Ě‚Ý‚ŞA‚ą‚ę‚đÝ’u‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚Ş‚Ĺ‚Ť‚éB

‚Q@‘O€‚ĚŠwZ‚É‚¨‚˘‚ẮA‹łˆç‚Ě–Ú•W‚Ş’BŹ‚ł‚ę‚é‚悤A‹łˆç‚đŽó‚Ż‚éŽŇ‚̐Sg‚Ě”­’B‚ɉž‚ś‚āA‘ĚŒn“I‚Č‹łˆç‚Ş‘gD“I‚ɍs‚í‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B‚ą‚Ěę‡‚É‚¨‚˘‚āA‹łˆç‚đŽó‚Ż‚éŽŇ‚ށAŠwZśŠˆ‚đ‰c‚ޏă‚Ĺ•K—v‚Č‹K—Ľ‚đd‚ń‚¸‚é‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁAŽŠ‚çi‚ń‚ĹŠwK‚ÉŽć‚č‘g‚ŢˆÓ—~‚đ‚‚ß‚é‚ą‚Ć‚đdŽ‹‚ľ‚čs‚í‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 6   

‘掾đ    (‘ĺŠw)

‘ĺŠw‚́AŠwp‚Ě’†S‚Ć‚ľ‚āA‚‚˘‹ł—{‚Ɛę–ĺ“I”\—Í‚đ”|‚¤‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁA[‚­^—‚đ’T‹†‚ľ‚ĐV‚˝‚Č’mŒŠ‚đ‘n‘˘‚ľA‚ą‚ę‚ç‚̐Ź‰Ę‚đL‚­ŽĐ‰ď‚É’ń‹Ÿ‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚É‚ć‚čAŽĐ‰ď‚Ě”­“W‚ÉŠń—^‚ˇ‚é‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ć‚ˇ‚éB

‚Q@‘ĺŠw‚ɂ‚˘‚ẮAŽŠŽĺŤAŽŠ—ĽŤ‚ť‚Ě‘ź‚Ě‘ĺŠw‚É‚¨‚Ż‚é‹łˆç‹y‚ŃŒ¤‹†‚Ě“ÁŤ‚Ş‘¸d‚ł‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 7   

‘攪đ    (Ž„—§ŠwZ)

Ž„—§ŠwZ‚Ě—L‚ˇ‚éŒö‚̐ŤŽż‹y‚ŃŠwZ‹łˆç‚É‚¨‚˘‚ĉʂ˝‚ˇd—v‚Č–đŠ„‚É‚Š‚ń‚Ş‚ÝA‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A‚ť‚ĚŽŠŽĺŤ‚đ‘¸d‚ľ‚‚A•Ź‚ť‚Ě‘ź‚Ě“K“–‚Č•ű–@‚É‚ć‚Á‚ÄŽ„—§ŠwZ‹łˆç‚̐U‹ť‚É“w‚ß‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 8   

‘ć‹ăđ    (‹łˆő)

–@—Ľ‚É’č‚ß‚éŠwZ‚Ě‹łˆő‚́AŽŠŒČ‚̐’‚‚ČŽg–˝‚đ[‚­ŽŠŠo‚ľAâ‚Ś‚¸Œ¤‹†‚ƏC—{‚É—ă‚݁A‚ť‚̐EÓ‚̐‹s‚É“w‚ß‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

‚Q@‘O€‚Ě‹łˆő‚ɂ‚˘‚ẮA‚ť‚ĚŽg–˝‚ƐEÓ‚̏d—vŤ‚É‚Š‚ń‚Ş‚ÝA‚ť‚̐g•Ş‚Í‘¸d‚ł‚ęA‘Ň‹ö‚Ě“Kł‚ŞŠú‚š‚ç‚ę‚é‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁA—{Ź‚ĆŒ¤C‚̏[ŽŔ‚ސ}‚ç‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 9   

‘ć\đ    (‰Ć’ë‹łˆç)

•ƒ•ę‚ť‚Ě‘ź‚Ě•ŰŒěŽŇ‚́AŽq‚Ě‹łˆç‚ɂ‚˘‚Ä‘ćˆę‹`“IÓ”C‚đ—L‚ˇ‚é‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚Á‚āAśŠˆ‚Ě‚˝‚ß‚É•K—v‚ȏKŠľ‚đg‚É•t‚Ż‚ł‚š‚é‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁAŽŠ—§S‚đˆçŹ‚ľASg‚Ě’˛˜a‚Ě‚Ć‚ę‚˝”­’B‚đ}‚é‚悤“w‚ß‚é‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ć‚ˇ‚éB

‚Q@‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A‰Ć’ë‹łˆç‚ĚŽŠŽĺŤ‚đ‘¸d‚ľ‚‚A•ŰŒěŽŇ‚ɑ΂ˇ‚éŠwK‚Ě‹@‰ď‹y‚яî•ń‚Ě’ń‹Ÿ‚ť‚Ě‘ź‚̉ƒ닳ˆç‚đŽx‰‡‚ˇ‚é‚˝‚ß‚É•K—v‚ČŽ{ô‚đu‚¸‚é‚悤“w‚ß‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 10   

‘ć\ˆęđ    (—cŽ™Šú‚Ě‹łˆç)

—cŽ™Šú‚Ě‹łˆç‚́AśŠU‚É‚í‚˝‚élŠiŒ`Ź‚ĚŠî‘b‚đ”|‚¤d—v‚Č‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚É‚Š‚ń‚Ş‚ÝA‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A—cŽ™‚ĚŒ’‚â‚Š‚ȐŹ’ˇ‚ÉŽ‘‚ˇ‚é—ǍD‚Ȋ‹Ť‚̐Ž”ő‚ť‚Ě‘ź“K“–‚Č•ű–@‚É‚ć‚Á‚āA‚ť‚̐U‹ť‚É“w‚ß‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 11   

‘ć\ƒjđ    (ŽĐ‰ď‹łˆç)

ŒÂl‚Ě—v–]‚âŽĐ‰ď‚Ě—vż‚É‚ą‚˝‚ŚAŽĐ‰ď‚É‚¨‚˘‚čs‚í‚ę‚é‹łˆç‚́A‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘Ě‚É‚ć‚Á‚輪コ‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

‚Q@‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A}‘ŠŮA”Ž•¨ŠŮAŒö–ŻŠŮ‚ť‚Ě‘ź‚̎ЉˆçŽ{Ý‚̐ݒuAŠwZ‚ĚŽ{Ý‚Ě—˜—pAŠwK‚Ě‹@‰ď‹y‚яî•ń‚Ě’ń‹Ÿ‚ť‚Ě‘ź‚Ě“K“–‚Č•ű–@‚É‚ć‚Á‚ĎЉˆç‚̐U‹ť‚É“w‚ß‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 12   

‘ć\ŽOđ    (ŠwZA‰Ć’ë‹y‚Ń’nˆćZ–Ż“™‚Ě‘ŠŒÝ‚Ě˜AŒg‹Ś—Í)

ŠwZA‰Ć’ë‹y‚Ń’nˆćZ–Ż‚ť‚Ě‘ź‚ĚŠÖŒWŽŇ‚́A‹łˆç‚É‚¨‚Ż‚é‚ť‚ę‚ź‚ę‚Ě–đŠ„‚ĆÓ”C‚𮩩o‚ˇ‚é‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁA‘ŠŒÝ‚Ě˜AŒg‹y‚Ń‹Ś—Í‚É“w‚ß‚é‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ć‚ˇ‚éB
Article 13   

‘ć\Žlđ    (­ŽĄ‹łˆç)

—ÇŽŻ‚ ‚éŒö–Ż‚Ć‚ľ‚Ä•K—v‚Ȑ­ŽĄ“I‹ł—{‚́A‹łˆçă‘¸d‚ł‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

‚Q@–@—Ľ‚É’č‚ß‚éŠwZ‚́A“Á’č‚̐­“}‚đŽxŽ‚ľA–”‚Í‚ą‚ę‚É”˝‘΂ˇ‚é‚˝‚߂̐­ŽĄ‹łˆç‚ť‚Ě‘ź­ŽĄ“IŠˆ“Ž‚đ‚ľ‚Ä‚Í‚Č‚ç‚Č‚˘B
Article 14   

‘ć\ŒÜđ   (@‹ł‹łˆçj
@‹ł‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚銰—e‚Ě‘Ô“xA@‹ł‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éˆę”Ę“I‚Č‹ł—{‹y‚я@‹ł‚̎ЉŠˆ‚É‚¨‚Ż‚é’nˆĘ‚́A‹łˆçă‘¸d‚ł‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

‚Q@‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘Ě‚ŞÝ’u‚ˇ‚éŠwZ‚́A“Á’č‚̏@‹ł‚Ě‚˝‚ß‚Ě@‹ł‹łˆç‚ť‚Ě‘ź@‹ł“IŠˆ“Ž‚đ‚ľ‚Ä‚Í‚Č‚ç‚Č‚˘B
Article 15   

‘ćŽOÍ    ‹łˆçs­ Chapter 3    Education administration
‘ć\˜Zđ    (‹łˆçs­)

‹łˆç‚́A•s“–‚ČŽx”z‚É•ž‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚Č‚­A‚ą‚Ě–@—Ľ‹y‚Ń‘ź‚Ě–@—Ľ‚Ě’č‚ß‚é‚Ć‚ą‚ë‚É‚ć‚čs‚í‚ę‚é‚ׂŤ‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚čA‹łˆçs­‚́A‘‚Ć’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘Ě‚Ć‚Ě“KŘ‚Č–đŠ„•Ş’S‹y‚Ń‘ŠŒÝ‚Ě‹Ś—͂̉şAŒöł‚Š‚“Kł‚ɍs‚í‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

‚Q@‘‚́A‘S‘“I‚Č‹łˆç‚Ě‹@‰ď‹Ď“™‚Ć‹łˆç…€‚ĚˆŰŽŒüă‚đ}‚é‚˝‚߁A‹łˆç‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éŽ{ô‚đ‘‡“I‚ɍô’č‚ľAŽŔŽ{‚ľ‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

‚R@’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A‚ť‚Ě’nˆć‚É‚¨‚Ż‚é‹łˆç‚̐U‹ť‚đ}‚é‚˝‚߁A‚ť‚ĚŽŔî‚ɉž‚ś‚˝‹łˆç‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éŽ{ô‚đô’č‚ľAŽŔŽ{‚ľ‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

‚S@‘‹y‚Ń’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A‹łˆç‚މ~ŠŠ‚Š‚ÂŒp‘ą“I‚ÉŽŔŽ{‚ł‚ę‚é‚悤A•K—v‚Čŕ­ă‚Ě‘[’u‚đu‚ś‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 16    (Education administration)

Education shall not be subject to improper control, but shall be conducted in accordance with this and other laws, and education administration must be carried out impartially and reasonably under appropriate division of roles and mutual cooperation between the state [country] and local public bodies. (WW)
‘ć\Žľđ    (‹łˆçU‹ťŠî–{Œv‰ć)

­•{‚́A‹łˆç‚̐U‹ť‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éŽ{ô‚Ě‘‡“I‚Š‚ÂŒv‰ć“I‚Ȑ„i‚đ}‚é‚˝‚߁A‹łˆç‚̐U‹ť‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éŽ{ô‚ɂ‚˘‚Ä‚ĚŠî–{“I‚Č•űj‹y‚эu‚¸‚ׂŤŽ{ô‚ť‚Ě‘ź•K—v‚ČŽ–€‚ɂ‚˘‚āAŠî–{“I‚ČŒv‰ć‚đ’č‚߁A‚ą‚ę‚đ‘‰ď‚É•ń‚ˇ‚é‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚ɁAŒö•\‚ľ‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

‚Q@’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘̂́A‘O€‚ĚŒv‰ć‚đŽQŽŢ‚ľA‚ť‚Ě’nˆć‚ĚŽŔî‚ɉž‚śA“–ŠY’n•űŒö‹¤’c‘Ě‚É‚¨‚Ż‚é‹łˆç‚̐U‹ť‚Ě‚˝‚ß‚ĚŽ{ô‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éŠî–{“I‚ČŒv‰ć‚đ’č‚ß‚é‚悤“w‚ß‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 17   

‘ćŽlÍ    –@—߂̐§’č Chapter 4   
‘ć\”ޏđ
‚ą‚Ě–@—Ľ‚É‹K’股‚鏔đ€‚đŽŔŽ{‚ˇ‚é‚˝‚߁A•K—v‚Č–@—߂ސ§’č‚ł‚ę‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B
Article 18   

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