The Girard and Kupski cases
Extraterritoriality and jurisdiction in post-Occupation Japan
By William Wetherall
First posted 15 January 2016
Last updated 20 August 2016
Laws and their enforcement
Sovereignty, extraterritoriality, and jurisdiction
Nationalism, politics, and journalism
Crime and criminality
Girard case (1957-1958) Dramatis personae | Somagahara geography | Commensal parasitism | Buraku liberation movement | Girard time line | Girard AP cards | John Hersey on Girard case | Melvin Belli on Girard case | Sueyama Haru's personal story | The Girards in America | In memoriam Maebashi v. Girard Particulars | Findings | Summary | Relevant laws | Main text | Reasons | Justices Girard incident humor Kemono | Girard war | Kaku no kasa
Kupski case (1957-1959) Kupski time line | Kupski AP cards | Kupski and Utako | Wescott and Eikawa | In memoriam
US Forces Japan
Dennis and Burns 1954
Hartman and Morris 1957-1958
Hill and others 1950
Jaramilo and Ray 1954
Maier and Eubanks 1954
Makarenko and Germait 1954-1956
May and others 1955-1956
Merideth and Pherigo 1958
Sasebo brig guards 1957
Sturdivent and Maehara 1950
Scott and Crews 1954
Seal and others 1954
Shiff and Griffin 1954
US Forces civilians
Other US civilians
Smith and Stinner 1952
Other UN Forces
Van der Bol and Kelders 1955
US Forces ROC
US Forces ROK
Other US Forces
Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA)
1953 "secret agreements"
Military crime statistics Allied Occupation and Korean War | U.S. Forces in Japan, 1952-2010 | Jurisdiction waivers, 1952-2010
Okinawa Ryukyu Islands (U.S. Administration) 1945-1972 | Okinawa prefecture (Japan) 1972 to present
Laws and their enforcement
Militaries are societies unto themselves. While they operate within other societies, they provide their members with forms of material and social support that may be lacking in the larger society. They also have their own legal institutions, including their own codes of behavior, and courts and sometimes prisons.
Most crimes involving violence are committed by younger people and males. Since most military personnel are male, and are generally younger, one would expect higher rates of homicide and rapes in neighborhoods that host military bases. This is not usually the case, however, since military societies are likely to provide education and employment opportunities, and forms of welfare and discipline that are lacking in many crime-ridden communities, which tend to be impoverished, insecure, and disorderly.
Occupationally, militaries draw upon all vocations, from barbers and cooks and doctors and mechanics, to chaplains and historians. Organizationally, however, a military is a killing machine. Military personnel engaged in "peaceful" vocations within the military, including medical support, indirectly contribute to the violence that takes place on battlefields and in sea and air assaults on military and civilian targets.
Personal as opposed to duty-related acts
This does not mean that soldiers are predisposed to "crime" as I am using the term here -- not in the sense of "war crimes" whether or not committed in the name of the state -- but in the sense of ordinary crimes committed as individuals against other individuals -- acts committed on or off duty, which are not related to the performance of duty.
The "crimes" committed by military personnel -- other than offenses peculiar to the military, such as AWOL or desertion -- are of the usual "human" kind -- theft, robbery, battery, rape, and murder, among other acts that all societies proscribe, punish, and attempt to prevent in different ways.
Sovereignty, extraterritoriality, and jurisdiction
Nationalism and politics
Crime and criminality
If there were no crime, what would people who hate crime but love crime fiction do for entertainment? A crimeless human society, however, is an oxymoron. Not only is to err to be human, but to be human is to be capable of intentionally or unwittingly violating codes of behavior, from not properly dressing, to committing multiple murders.
Just as customs and laws vary from society to society, different societies have different patterns of crimes, in which some crimes are more common than others. The means of committing the same kind of crime, such as homicide, will also vary from population to population, depending on what sort of weapons are available. The range of possible motives, though, are the same everywhere.
Some societies have more categorical crimes than others, but all appear to have what I would call a "normal pathology" that characterizes its particularly variety of criminalized anti-social human nature. Higher "usual" or "typical" or "normal" homicide rates in the United States generally and in certain U.S. cities in particular, compared to Japan, reflect differences in local social conditions that give rise to the incidence rates. Changing the rates require changing political, economic, and cultural conditions.
A "crime" is an act that a society defines as an offense against its statute and customary laws, regulations, rules, or customs.
"Criminality" is a measure of the amount of crime committed by a given population -- nationality, age group, sex, race, whatever.
Military forces are composed mainly of young males. They are trained and disciplined differently than civilians, and live under different conditions. When deployed to other countries, they live in those countries as foreign military personnel, not as foreign residents. When off duty and off base, they become just young males in a foreign land. Some will visit museums and historical sites. Others will head for the bars and cabarets.
On or off duty, military personnel, like other people, may become involved in an accident caused by their carelessness or negligence. The car they are driving may hit a fence or pedestrian.
Japan v. William S. Girard, 1957-1958
The "Girard Incident" (Jiraado jiken ジラード事件) as it became known in Japan occurred on 30 January 1957, when Specialst 3rd Class William S. Girard (ウィリアム'S'ジラード 1935-1999), age 21, shot toward and killed Sakai Nakako (坂井奈加子なか), aka Sakai Naka, age 46, a housewife and mother of 6, who had been gathering spent shells to sell for scrap, at Sōmagahara Firing Range, aka Camp Weir, in Gunma prefecture, where Girard was participating in a firing exercise. The killing fed an anti-base movement that had begun during the Occupation of Japan but could not then be expressed on account of restrictions on criticism of the Allied Authorities. The end of the Occupation on 28 April 1952 unleashed the dogs of anti-base sentiments in the press and on the streets. The Korean War, which had started in June 1950, was still raging, and the base problem was exacerabted by the rebuilding of American military forces in Japan and the support provided in Japan for the military forces of other countries that had joined the United Nations alliance in the defense of the Republic of Korea. Leftists viewed the manner in which some factories and other facilities in Japan were logistically supporting the UN Forces as capitalist exploitation. The public was divided between people who welcomed the economic stimulation of the war if not also RESUME its protection of ROK as a non-ccommunismor thethe was strongly opposed by leftists who especially by radical activists, but fueled objection, especially among radical activists, to the presence of foreign military bases and personnel in Japan, and the bases to the bases and the cradical groups, some of which engaged in sabotage.the buildup up United Nations forces, , when the Korean War was still going on. The demobilization following the war could not be fast enough for the many Japanese who were opposed to the U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Treaty and the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) that gave America's military presence in Japan virtual extraterritorial privileges.
There were two legal issues. One was whether the shooting was murder or manslaughter. But before this issue could be resolved, the other issue -- as to whether, under SOFA, the U.S. Army or Japan had jurisdiction.
Girard claimed the shooting -- not with a bullet but with a cartrige fired by a grenade lanucher mounted on an M-1 rifle -- was an accident which had occurred while he was on duty. Japanese public opinion contended that he had shot Sakai during a break in the exercise and that he had acted maliciously.
There was a common perception in Japan -- and this perception continues today everytime a sensational crime is reported involving U.S. Navy personnel in Yokosuka or U.S. Marines in Okinawa -- that Japanese victims of crimes committed by U.S. military personnel in Japan could not expect to get justice in a U.S. military court. At the time of the Girard case, Japan's press had reported a crime committed by a U.S. soldier in Taipei, on Taiwan, in the Republic of China, in which a miltary court had found the soldier not guilty. And so the U.S. government was between a rock and a hard place if it wanted to assure the people of Japan that it respected Japan's rights to try U.S. military personnel who commit crimes under Japanese law to stand trial in a Japanese court.
The U.S. government decided that, apart from whether Girard was on duty, his action had not been authorized, hence he should stand trial in a Japanese court. Girard's family attorneys in the United States, however, filed a writ of habeus corpus a federal court court against Secretary of State John Foster Dulles on 18 June 1957. The court ruled that to transfer Girard, then in U.S. custody, to Japanese custody would violate his rights under the U.S. Constitution.
However, the U.S. government thought differently. Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson took up the jurisdictional issue with the Supreme Court in what is known as Wilson v. Girard. The issue was argued on 8 July and decided on 11 July -- less than one month after the habeus corpus was filed. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Wilson, thus upholding the U.S. government's position that, under the circumstances of the case as the government understood them, Girard should stand trial in a Japanese court. (U.S. Supreme Court, Wilson v. Girard, 354 U.S. 524 (1957), No. 1103). Some congressmen and military officials objected to the government's position and the Supreme Court's decision to let Girard be tried in a U.S. miltary court, and some criticism was also directed aginst President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
The U.S. Army in Japan transfered Girard to the custody of Japanese police in Gunma prefecture and his trial was conducted in the Maebashi District Court in August and September 1957. The court found him guilty of inflicting bodily harm, and sentenced him to a 3-year prison term suspended for 4 years.
The case attracted even more attention when a Japanese woman married Girard during the trial, then accompanied him back to the United States.
Dramatis personae in Girard caseWilliam Sylvester Girard (William S. Girard, aka "Bill" and "Biru") -- Specialist 3rd Class (Specialist 3/C, Spec 3, S3C) Sueyama Haru (Haru Sueyama, Haru Girard, aka "Candy") Dorothy Girard -- William Girard's mothe Journalists Kenneth Ishii (FCCJ president, Ken Ishii International Herald Tribune July 1983 - Jun 1984) [followed Karel van Wolferen NRC-Handelsblad July 1982 - Jun 1983] Ray Falk (WNS, NANA) Fred Saito PMS writer Jay Axelbank INS writer Frank Scolinos Father: Harry Scolinos Mother: Violet Vlandis Frank Scolinos in the U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935-2014 Name: Frank Scolinos SSN: 560-14-2643 BORN: 7 Jul 1912 Last Benefit: 713, (U.S. Consulate) Tokyo, Japan Died: Oct 1976 State (Year) SSN issued: California (Before 1951) Frank H Scolinos in the California, Death Index, 1940-1997 Name: Frank H Scolinos Gender: Male Birth Date: 7 Jul 1912 Birth Place: California Death Date: 14 Oct 1976 Death Place: Los Angeles Frank H Scolinos in the U.S. World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946 Name: Frank H Scolinos Birth Year: 1912 Race: White, citizen (White) Nativity State or Country: California State of Residence: California County or City: Los Angeles Enlistment Date: 4 Sep 1942 Enlistment State: California Enlistment City: Los Angeles Branch: Branch Immaterial - Warrant Officers, USA Branch Code: Branch Immaterial - Warrant Officers, USA Grade: Private Grade Code: Private Term of Enlistment: Enlistment for the duration of the War or other emergency, plus six months, subject to the discretion of the President or otherwise according to law Component: Selectees (Enlisted Men) Source: Civil Life Education: 4 years of college Civil Occupation: Paymasters, payroll clerks, and timekeepers Marital Status: Single, without dependents Height: 69 Weight: 220 Frank Scolinos Burial: Yokohama Foreign General Cemetery Yokohama Kanagawa, Japan Plot: Section #12 Mr. and Mrs. Frank Scolinos, of Tokyo, related many experiences during the Tojo trials at which he was an attorney. Frank is one of the few non-Orientals who practices law in Japan. The Scolinos came to the States to attend the Aheppa national convention at Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles. (Aheppa is a Greek society). Melvin Belli -- San Francisco, California attorney Hayashi Itsuro -- Girard's Japanese attorney of record Major Stanley F. Levin -- Girard's personal U.S. Army legal advisor Brigidar General Charles L. Decker, U.S. Army assistant judge advocate genral Sakai Naka -- scap metal collector, victim of Girard shooting Sakai Akichi -- Naka's husband Sakai Chikao -- Oldest son Sakai Kayako -- Daughter (19) Sakai Yuri -- Daughter (4) Venues Camp Weir -- Somagahara, Gunma prefecture Camp Whittington Camp Drew -- Koizumi, Gunma Prefecture Camp Weir, Shinto, Gunma Camp Whittington, Kumagaya, Saitama Camp Drake, Asaka, Saitama Camp Drew, Oizumi, Gunma Maebashi District Court judges Kawachi Yuzo (chief judge) Saikawa Teizo Hirata Takashi Onozeki Hidetsugu (31) -- Witness to shooting, testified and demonstrated as to how Girard fired his rifle from the waist Joseph C. McGarraghy, U.S. District Court Judge, ruled against Japanese jurisdiction, and the U.S. government appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, which ruled that permitting Japanese jurisdiction did not violet the U.S. Constitution regarding Girard's rights under U.S. law, and recognized that under international law Japan, as a sovereign state, had the right to try anyone who violated its laws within its territory.
Somagahara geographyShortly after the Girard incident two east-west neighboring ōaza (大字) areas were merged into Minowa (箕輪) and Momo-no-i (桜井) Japan's villages and towns have constantly been changing their borders as existing entities are partly or entirely merged into other entities. Some entities are divided between two other entities. The larger entities may carry on the name of one of the older entities or be renamed. Practically all of the thousands of villages that existed at the beginning of the Meiji era have been absorbed into towns, and many towns have become cities. The historical village names may or may not survive as the names of neighborhoods in today's towns and cities. Prefectural borders have also sometimes shifted as a result of territorial reorganization.
Gunma prefecture's cities -- including its largest cities, Maebashi (the prefectural seat) and Takasaki (the more important railway and highway junction in the prefecture) -- sprawl as they do today as the result of absorbing numerous surrounding towns and villages in mergers since the prefectures were created at the beginning of the Meiji era.
At the time Girard shot Sakai, Sōmagahara (相馬原、相馬ヶ原) was in the jurisdiction of Sōma-mura (相馬村). Two months later, the village split into two parts that were merged with neighboring entities. One of the new entities, Misato-machi (箕郷町), is now a part of Takasaki city (高崎市). The other is not Shintō-mura (榛東村), the home of Camp Sōmagahara (Sōmagahara Chūtonchi 相馬原駐屯地) of Japanese Ground Self-Defense Forces (JGSDF Rikujō Jieitai 陸上自衛隊). The camp originated in 1941 as an Imperial Army reserve officer training facility. During the Allied Occupation from 1945-1952, the U.S. Army took over Imperial Army facility and renamed it Camp Weir. The month the Occupation ended, newly formed Japanese military units that later became the Self-Defense Forces established training facilities in the area, while under the terms of the mutual-security treaty that came into effect when the Allied Occupation ended, the U.S. Army continued to conduct infantry maneuver drills at Camp Weir. In September 1958, the U.S. Army, which had been in the process of reducing its strength in Japan when the Girard incident occurred, withdrew from the camp as part of its continuing demobilization program. Since then, the Sōmagahara grounds have been utilized by the Self-Defense Forces, which have built a number of new facilities in the area.
Sōma-mura was situated in the barren foothills of the southern slopes of Mt. Haruna (榛名山), a volcanic mountain in the middle of Gunma prefectures. The Haruna area is home to the Ikaho (伊香保) hotsprings resort. Many people in Gunma and surrounding prefectures visit the hotsprings at least once in their lives. My own now deceased former parents-in-law occasionally entertained guests there, including my parents. In the 1970s, when I was in the area as a passenger in a car or a bus, I was aware of the Girard incident but was not familiar with its geography. I made the round trip to Maebashi from somewhere in residences in Saitama, Tokyo, or Chiba prefecture, on the Takasaki line, which stops at Kagohara station near where Haru lived, about 50 times, without thinking of the Girard case.
Sōma-mura (相馬村) originated on 1 April 1889 as merger of two villages, Hirobaba-mura (広馬場村) and Kashiwagizawa-mura (柏木沢村), and was affiliated with Nishi Gunma-gun (西群馬郡) [West Gunma county]. On 1 April 1896, Nishi Gunma-gun and Kataoka-gun (片岡郡) merged as just Gunma-gun (群馬郡).
At the time time Girard shot Sakai, Sōma-mura still existed as part of Gunma-gun. But on 30 March 1957, two months after the shooting, for reasons unrelated to the shooting, as part of general local government reorganization plan that affected municipalities throughout Japan, Sōma-mura was broken up into its original components, each of which was merged with neighboring municipalities into new administrative entities. Ōaza Hirobaba and Ōaza Kashiwagizawa, as the former villages had been called as parts of Sōma-mura, became parts of respectively Momonoi-mura (桃井村) in a newly created Kita Gunma-gun (北群馬郡), and Misato-machi (箕郷町) in Gunma-gun.>/p>
More specifically, on 1 April 1955 -- the start of the fiscal year for most organizations in Japan -- Minowa-machi (箕輪町) and Kurumasato-mura (車郷村) merged into a new entity called Misato-machi (箕郷町). On 30 March 1957, two months after Girard shot Sakai at Somagahara, the Ōaza Kawshiwagizawa (大字柏木沢) of Sōma village was was integrated into Misato-machi. Two days later, on 1 April 1957, Misato-machi absorbed part of Kamisato-mura (上郊村).
Also on 30 March 195O, the Ūaza Hirobaba (大字広馬場) part of Sōma-mura was merged into Momonoi-mura (桃井村). And on 1 August 1959, the village was renamed Shintō-mura. Shintō-mura remains one of the few entities in Gunma prefecture that survives as a village. It is situated in the westernmost part of Nishi [West] Gunma county (西群馬郡), on the eastern foothills of Mt. Haruna.Misato-machi's border with Takasaki city (高崎市) was adjusted on 1 October 1989, and its border with Shintō-mura (榛東村) was adjusted on 1 July 1995. And on 23 January 2006, Misato-machi was absorbed by Takasaki, which sprawls to the south west and west of Maebashi. The Minowa and Misato continue to exist as place names in the northeast reaches of Takasaki, just to the west of Shintō-mura (see below), which is about 10 kilometers northwest of the heart of Maebashi.
My awareness of So 群馬郡相馬村 （1957年3月30日）分割し、群馬郡桃井村新設・箕郷町に編入のため 群馬郡（旧）桃井村 （1957年3月30日）群馬郡桃井村新設のため 昭和32年3月30日 相馬村の一部を編入合併 昭和32年4月1日 上郊村の一部を編入合併 平成18年1月23日 高崎市へ編入合併 昭和32年3月30日 相馬村大字広馬場と新設合併して桃井村となる 昭和34年8月1日 改称して榛東村となる
Camp Weir and related US Army bases
Sōmagahara is situated in the foothills of Mt. Haruna northwest of the city of Maebashi, the capital of Gunma prefecture, where in 1957 Girard was tried in a district court. An Imperial Army training facility was established in the area in 1941, shortly before the start of the Pacific War. In 1945, after World War II, and during and after the 1950-1953 Korean War, the U.S. Army, calling the facility Camp Weir, used it for infantry maneuvering drills with live artillery, machine-gun, and rifle fire.
In August 1950, after the start of the Korean war, the Occupation government created the National Police Reserve (Keisatsu Yobitai 警察予備隊) as a contingency against the need to protect Japan if the war came to Japan, since the bulk of U.S. forces in Japan had been sent to the peninsula. On 28 April 1952, the Allied Occupation of Japan ended, but the U.S. Army continued to use Camp Weir under the terms of the U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Treaty, which came into effect on the same day. By then, the National Police Reserve was garrisoning and training tank units at its own Sōmagahara facilities.
The government's appropriation of land to expand Sōmagahara met with strong resistance from local people, who in July 1952, with considerable support from proletarian organizations, staged protests that are known as the Sōmagahara Garrison Incident (Sōmagahara Chūtonchi Jiken 相馬ヶ原駐屯地事件) or just the Sōmagahara Incident. In October 1952, the National Safety Force were renamed the National Safety Force (Hoantai 保安隊), and in July 1954 these forces were reorganized as today's Self-Defense Force (Jieitai 自衛隊).
The former Camp Weir, as home to the 12th Brigade (Dai-12 Ryodantai 第12旅団対) of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Rikujō Jieitai 陸上自衛隊), is called Sōgahara Chūtonchi (相馬ヶ原駐屯地事件) or Camp Soumagahara. The camp includes a 500-meter runway and other facilities to accommodate its air assault helicopter squadrons. It is one of 6 JGSDF brigades, and as part of the Eastern Army, it is responsible for the defense Gunma, Nagano, Niigata, and Tochigi prefectures (see map below). Some of its units are stationed in these prefectures. The camp dominates Shintō-mura (榛東村), one of the last Gunma-prefecture villages that has not been integrated into a town or city, most likely because of its special utilization as a military facility.
In 1958, the year after the Girard incident, in part of a general demobilization plan that had begun before the incident, the U.S. Army, which after 1952 had
As a U.S. Army facility, Camp Weir was used by a number of nearby U.S. military bases, including Camp Drew near the town of Koizumi (Koizumi-machi 小泉町) by Ōta city (Ōta-shi 太田市) in southeast Gunma. Camp Drew became a weapons repair depot and was also home to a general hospital during the Korean War.
Girard was a member of Company F of the 8th Cavalry Regiment, which was garrisoned at Camp Whittington near the city of Kumagaya in northeast Saitama prefecture, immediately south of the Koizumi-Ōta area of Gunma prefecture, across the Tone river, which separates the prefectures.
Another base that made use of the Sōmagahara facility was Camp Drake, by the town of Asaka, now a city, in Saitama prefecture to the east of Tokorozawa. During the Occupation of Japan, the Asaka camp was home to several U.S. 8th Army units, including the 1st Cavalry Division, the first such military unit to enter Tokyo in September 1945.
1st Cavalry Division
The 1st Cavalry Division had been stationed at Drake when sent to its fate in Korea in July 1950, one month into the conflict that is now called a war. The division was rotated to Hokkaido in December 1951, but in 1954 its component units were dispersed to various camps in northern Honshu.
By 1956, the division's headquarters had returned to Camp Drake, but most of its units were assigned to other camps in the Tokyo area. The 8th Cavalry Regiment was garrisoned at Camp Whittington. By the end of 1957, pursuant to a treaty in which the United States agreed to remove all ground forces from Japan, the division was grouped with other 8th Army units in Korea, leaving only a communication facility at Drake.
Girard was affiliated with the 8th Cavalry Regiment of the 1st Cavalry division. This regiment, the first unit of the division to see action in Korea, was rumored, apparently falsely, to have lost its flag when overrun and severely battered by superior Chinese forces at Unsan in Korea in November 1950.
The relationship between Camp Weir and local residents was that of a host and a parasite or pest. The Local people were flies and mosquitoes or crows to soldiers who tried to shoo them away but, unable to eradicate them or scare them off, learned to live with them. Trespassing was so common that, for practical reasons, it had to be accommodated with a certain tolerance, even when it interfered with on-going exercises -- as on the day of the Girard incident.
The Imperial Army had commandeered the land first stretch of land that would become the Somagahara firing range in 1910 and developed it as a reserve officer training facility in 1920. The grounds were periodically expanded into the early 1940s, at the expense of encroaching on land that local people either farmed or used for producing the grasses they need to weave sacks they sold to supplement their farm incomes.
The U.S. Army occupied the Somagahara facility in 1945 and commandered it as a U.S. Army training camp in 1946. The U.S. Army expanded the size of the facility by requisitioning land. Occupants were ordered to leave, and the camp was declared off limits. This created friction with the local people whose liveilhoods depended on access to the land they had lost.
In August 1950, shortly after the start of the Korean War in June, the Allied Powers, facing the prospects of being unable to defend Occupied Japan because so many U.S. Forces and other Allied Occupation Forces units had been sent to the peninsula, authorized the organization of Japanese reserve police units, which were essentially military forces, and helped train them in the use of American weapons. The Occupation ended on 28 April 1952, and by June some Chosenese in Japan who supported the Democratic People's Republic of Chōsen ("North Korea") had organized an "Ancestorland (Fatherland) Defense Corps" to agitate against the deployment from Japan of U.S. and other United Nations troops to support the Republic of Korea ("South Korea") against the northern regime, which had started the war by invading the south.
Some leftists, including some pro-North Chosenese, had sabotaged some Japanese factories that were producing war materiel, and several had been arrested, convicted, and imprisoned. However, when the Occupation ended, U.S. and other foreign military bases became fair game for criticism and protest, which had been strictly forbidden by the Occupation Authorities. And people, not only radicals, came out of the woodwork to express their disenchantment with the U.S.-Japan security treaty, U.S. military bases, and and Japan's logistical support of the Korean War. There were even rumors that Japanese troops might be sent to the peninsula.
The anti-Communist Yomiuri shinbun had reported as early as 30 March 1952, 4 weeks before the Occupation formally ended, that pro-North Chosenese in Japan were organizing 20,000 people into "terrorist groups" (tero-dan テロ團) to disrupt Japan's support of United Nations Forces in the war on the peninsula. And in June 1957, one of these groups began distributing "agitation bills" (handbills calling for agitation) in Gunma prefecture and infiltrating Sōmagahara.
On 12 July 1952, hearing that some Chosenese were headed for Sōmagahara armed with bamboo staves, police intercepted them and arrested the participants for illegal possession of "fire bottles" (kaenbin 火炎瓶) [gasoline bombs, Molotov cocktails] and sulfuric acid (ryūsan 硫酸). On 29 July, discovering a mountain hut from which the protestors were planning to blow up some of the Sōmagahara facilities, police invaded the hideout and arrested 5 more members of the group.
These events of July 1952 are known as the "Sōmagahara chūtonchi jiken" (相馬ヶ原駐屯地事件) or "Sōmagahara garrison incident".
A report in the 3 March 1957 issue of the weekly Shū:kan Yomiuri (pages 18-23), which came out a few weeks after the Girard shooting at Sōmagahara, said that the maneuvering grounds had once been smaller and the Imperial Army had strictly enforced the no-tresspassing orders. The the Imperial Army had permitted local people to enter the grounds on Sundays, when there were no training exercises, and gather whatever metal casings or fragments they could find. As Imperial Army soldiers generally retrived the brass casings of expended rifle, machinegun, and artillery shells, the metal collectors had to be content with projectile fragments, which didn't bring them as much money.
In the U.S. army, picking up brass shell casings is called "policing brass". The policing might be merely to clean up shells on a firing range, or it could be related to ammuniation control. At a training camp, ammunition is usually accountable, so if the armory issues a soldier 100 rounds of rifle ammunition, and the soldier returns 50 unfired rounds with 30 empty cartriges, the soldier may have to explain the missing 20 rounds. When I was an orderly with an ambulance company in the U.S. Army in 1964, I remember digging a trench for a latrine during a mass casualty field exercise, and finding several clips of live ammunition of a kind that was used during World War II and the Korean War. The supply sergeant told me to rebury it, as disposing of it in the authorized way would require paperwork. The impractical idealist that I was at the time, I argued that to rebury it would constitute a safety hazard. The company commander told the sergeant to recover it, then told me that if I found any more to leave it be because it was harmless.
Soldiers "police" cigarette butts or other forms of litter or garbage. "Police the barracks" means cleaning them, as by picking and straightening things up. "Kitchen police" is the duty lower ranking soldiers pull in the kitchen, which generally involves lots of scrubbing and cleaning. "Thought police" reflects both the "control" and "clean up" senses of the word "police".
Practically all US military bases in Japan were established on former Japanese military bases which had established various kinds of relationships with local residents. The bases could have been factories or buisinesses of some kinds. A textile factory employment mostly young unmarried women would establish one kind of relationship with the surrounding community. A military base garrisoning mainly young unattached men another kind. A base of foreign troops would present its own "problems" and "opportunities" for neighboring localities.
When the Occupation Forces came -- mostly American and British Commonweath troops -- local people had to adapt to a new host RESUME in what had become a symbiotic you-can-screw-me, but I-get-to-screw-you-too relationship. From another point of view, of course, the military forces were the parasites on the communities whose land had been been requisitioned for military use.
The above Shūkan Yomiuri article states that the U.S. Army had expanded the perimeter of the Sōmagahara grounds, in the southern foothills of Mt. Haruna, by about 20 kilometers, into terrain that on the whole was barren and did not include farmland. The larger grounds were not as easily patrolled, and the enforcement of non-tresspassing rules were not as strictly enforced.
Scavengers had pretty much a free run of the grounds. They came with burlap gunny sacks (asabukuro アサ袋、麻袋), or woven baskets called "zama" (ザマ) which were carried on the back. Some even brought "semitoribukuro" (セミトリ袋), which were made of netting to hold cicadas or other singing insects.
Some would put a bottle of whiskey in a bag then poll the bag to a soldier during a firing exercise. The soldier would pocket the whiskey and fill the bag with shell casings (yakkyō 薬キョウ、薬莢). Some would even crawl close to a firing machine gun and scramble for the hot shells as they flew from the chamber.
Some days there would be as many as 300 to 400 "shell pickers" (tamahiroi タマ拾い、弾拾い) on the grounds. The scrap recyclers (shikiriya 仕切屋) would come on motorbikes or in Datsuns, and bread vendors (pan'ya パン屋) and others would come to sell food and beverages, "so preposterous (gongo dōdan 言語道断) had the situation become -- nonsense (detarame-sa デタラメさ) that was unthinkable at the time of the Imperial Army." (Ibid.)
The magazine cites Sakai Akichi, the victim's husband, as saying this (ibid, page 19; my transcription and translation).
In July 2016, a man commenting on Mark Schreiber's article "Death by Firing Range" in the Number 1 Shimbun (August 2016), on the Girard incident, shared the following anecdote with the author (27 July 2016 email from Schreiber).
When I first went to Korea in the late 70's there were still shell-pickers. I was shocked to see [a] little guy leap out of a spiderhole and yank a still smoking TOW [Tube‐launched, Optically‐tracked, Wire‐guided] missile out of a berm, throw it over his shoulder, and scamper up a hill to disappear into the distance. Then the guys walking beside my moving, firing tank, picking up red hot machinegun brass . . . tough way to make a living.
Few socioparisitologists -- and I may be the only one, since this may be the first time this word has been used -- would cite the relationship between a military base and the surrounding community as an example of mutualism -- in which both host and parasite not only benefit from each others existence, but need each other in order for either to survive. In a mutualistic relationship, both parties are opportunistic, but neither is essential to the existence of the other.
To the extent that military bases feed on the civilian populations of nearby towns, the relationship between a base and the a base town is parasitic. But while the town (host) may suffer from the presence of the base (parasite), the base also contributes to the survival of the town's civilian hosts, in that it provides employment for civilians and trade for local businesses, including the sex industry.
The relationship between a military base and a base town is therefore commensal, meaning that it is outwardly beneficial to both host and parasite. In the long run, though, the relationship it will probably harm the host in ways not readily evident on a day-by-day, transaction-by-transaction basis.
In addition to the dangers and noise from aircraft and firing drills, local people will suffer casualties if the military base is targeted during a war. Towns that become economically dependent on a base, which is usually the case when the town has grown with the establishment and expansion of the base, will suffer if the base is significantly reduced in size or closed.
Japanese critics of American military bases also worry about the presence of large numbers of young males in want of female companionship. Bases attract "camp followers" to the town, and the ways in which soldiers and their girlfriends carry on in public morally corrupt the outlook and behavior of the children who live around the entertainment strips or have to walk by them on the way to school.
The commensalism evident in such host-parasite relationships are still seen today around American bases in Japan. In Okinawa, especially, public opinion toward local US military bases is divided among those who want the bases to go -- now -- and those who recognize the inbred economic dependency on the continued presence of the bases.
Sudden closure of a military base imposes severe hardships on many individuals and families. Slower phasing out would also force a number of people to change their present lives. Socially, people easily get used to the way they live. Politically, people are not easily persuaded to give up a predictable present for an uncertain future.
Buraku liberation movement
The most thoroughly documented report on the "buraku liberation movement" in Gunma prefecture, centering on the Somagahara Incident of 1955, which became closely linked to the Girard Incident of 1957, was Narisawa Eijū (成澤榮壽 b1937). Narisawa specializes in Japanese history and buraku problems, and history and dōwa education, as a leading member of the Buraku Mondai Kenkyūjo (部落問題研究所), the research arm of what was then called All Japan [National] Federation of Buraku Liberation Movements (全国部落解放運動連合会 Zenkoku Buraku Kaiho Undo RengokaiZenkoku Buraku Kaihō Undō Rengō Kai), or Zenkairen (全解運) for short. t of and buraku and dōwa education.I had the privilege of being contacted by Narisawa in connection with my writing on censorship provoked by Buraku Kaihō Dōmei.
Ko takes her terminology from buraku liberation movement literature published after World War II, at the height of the postwar rebirth of hardcore proletarian radicalism, which had developed from the late 1910s and early 1920s, but had been suppressed by the late 1930s and early 1940s. The postwar movement divided into two major factions in the 1970s when communists within the socialist-dominated Buraku Liberation League (BLL) were purged and formed their own organization, National Federation of Buraku Liberation Movements (Zenkairen).By the 1990s, Zenkairen was declaring an "end to buraku history". It was no longer appropriate to speak of "buraku" much less of their need for "liberation". In 2004, it took "buraku liberation" out of its own name in preference for National Confederation of Community Human Rights Movements (Zenjinren). From its viewpoint, only communities still under the BLL's spell need liberation, from BLL's ideology and domination. Dissenters form Zenkairen
In 1970, dissenters set up the All Japan Liaison Council to Normalize the Buraku Liberation League [Buraku Kaiho Domei Seijoka Zenkoku Renraku Kyogi Kai] to organize their opposition to BLL's main faction. The council became the All Japan Federation of Buraku Liberation Movements [Zenkoku Buraku Kaiho Undo Rengokai] (Zenkairen) in 1976. And in 2004, deciding to put its organizational name where its ideological mouth was, BLL's nemesis restyled itself as the National Confederation of Community Human Rights Movements [Zenkoku Chiiki Jinken Undo Sorengo] (Zenjinren) in 2004.
Zenkairen versus BLL
BLL was supported by the Japan Socialist Party (JSP), and Zenkairen was backed by the Japan Communist Party (JCP). Zenkairen (Zenjinren) endeavored to expose BLL's tactics and vested interests. Though its arguments have sometimes been insufferably doctrinaire and self-righteous, its voice has been one reason BLL has failed to get the government to enact a Fundamental Law for Buraku Liberation [Buraku kaiho kihon ho] and pass a new dowa measures law.
For what it's worth -- 100,000 is a fairly standard honoraium for a guest speaker. I myself received this much for presenting a paper on censorship of buraku-related passages in English and Japanese publications at the 42nd National Buraku Problems Summer Seminar held at Kyoto Hall on 29 July 1993 by Buraku Problems Research Institute (部落問題研究所 Buraku Mondai Kenkyūjo), the research arm of BLL's arch rival, the All Japan [National] Federation of Buraku Liberation Movements (全国部落解放運動連合会 Zenkoku Buraku Kaiho Undo RengokaiZenkoku Buraku Kaihō Undō Rengō Kai), or Zenkairen (全解運) for short. The paper was published both in BPRI's journal Buraku (部落), and in Narusawa Eiji's book on freedom of expression and the buraku problem, which was also published by BPRI. See Narusawa 1993 on this page for particulars Narusawa's book, and The eradication of the buraku problem in Japanese translations: Errors and lack of awareness not as frightening as censorship for the full text of the paper, which was published and orally presented only in Japanese. Disclosure The stage at the hall was huge and set back quite a distance from the audience, which was huge, barely illuminated, and just a dark blue of faces to me, standing beind a podium with a fixed mike. The audience response was mixed. A couple of people out of ten or so liked what I said. A couple complained that I didn't use any visuals (I never do). And one said my Japanese was terrible and difficult to follow (sometimes it is)
Buraku Mondai Kenkyujo (Hen)
This volume includes the following seminal article byPages 226-231 Yamamoto (page 49, note 6) III 戦後部落解放運動史 成沢栄寿 群馬県戦後部落解放運動史 二 相馬ケ原事件の背景と闘争 Narisawa Eijō Gunma-ken sengo buraku kaihō undō shi [Gunma prefecture postwar buraku liberation movement history] Pages 213-242 2 Sōmagahara jiken no haikei to tōsō [2. Background and struggle of Sōmagahara incident] > I heard from Bill Brooks that the woman shot by Girard was a Dowa. If it's > true, I wonder if I should track down the Buraku Domei people and go over > for a chitchat. That Sakai Nakako's family may have been part of a local population identified by some as descendants of former outcastes has been well-known. But let me make a couple of comments here. Rumor mongers at the time would not have said "dowa" anything. The word was being used by a few some people promoting "dowa kyoiku" but it was not a Buraku Kaiho Domei term and the media certainly were not using it the way it is now. Many contemporary writers spoke of "tokushu buraku" (as the prewar Suiheisha and its postwar restart did), but Kaido pushed "hisabetsu buraku" and "mikaiho buraku" terminology. Kaido then aggressively suppressed the use of "tokushu buraku" hence so many "denunciation" (糾弾) actions centering on this expression. "Dowa chiiki" came into use in the 1960s and 1970s in relationship to national and local government redevelopment projects in the name of the law that used this term. "Dowa chiiki" was used to avoid ideological Kaido labels. Kaido, or more accurately its Suiheisha predecessor, had set up branches in a number of localities in the Kanto area, including Gunma prefecture. Postwar Kaido jumped at every possible opportunity to flaunt its then mixed socialist/communist pressure tactics. Communists were later purged from the ranks and the more radical socialist elements that remained are responsible for the more forceful tactics that came to give "buraku" a "kowai" image. Basically, though, the "buraku mondai" aspects of the story have no bearing on the legal or political issues of the Girard case. They quality only as "back story" material for stories by a number of reporters. Hersey flogged the "buraku connections" to death without really getting into the true nature of the beast. I first heard about the Girard case in 1967, not in relation to U.S-Japan issues, but in relation to buraku issues. That was the year "Japan's Invisible Race" was published. I was just starting my studies with De Vos when the book came out. I marked my own copy with corrections. I later met Wagatsuma, who made all the introductions I needed to pursue the nationality case. Wagatsuma also left me all his (and another researcher's) collection of konketsuji materials. I met Karel in De Vos's office in 1969. Karel would later do some photographs for the book Wagatsuma and De Vos later published about families in Adachi ward. Anyway, I told you about Hersey's New Yorker article, put uploaded only images of the cover in Dropbox because I couldn't download the content, or at least not to my satisfaction. Actually, only the first 4 pages of the 19 pages downloaded clearly. I teased image files of the other pages out of the website, but the other images were of a different quality. None of them displayed properly in any of my image viewers. So I uploaded each to a photo editor and simply re-saved the file, and the 15 corrupted files (of the 19 files) are now "readable" though not as clearly or as comfortably as the first 4 pages. If you have an aversion to reading blown up jpg files on your monitor, you may be able to print them from The New Yorker's website. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1957/12/07/a-game-on-a-hill Ignore what the website says about subscribing and click "View article". You either blow up the image on the screen and read it on-line (it takes time for a sharper image to replace the thumbnail). Or you attempt to print from the screen. It's your choice. Or attempt to read my files if nothing else works. I've scanned what Wagatsuma wrote about the case in the 1967 book. The red markings are mine, made when I first red the book that year. I've put these and some other items in the "Girard case" folder but also in the "New" folder. One of the items includes the first page of the main feature of the 29 September 1957 issue of Shukan Asahi. The article runs from pages 3-13, hence begins on the first page of the pulp pages inside the cover (which is pages 1 and 2). I can't find a statement of when the issue was printed but I would guess about a week before the cover date. Many U.S. papers carry reports circt 24 September on the Girard case and often the same page includes a another report by Fred Saito, who refers to the Shukan Asahi article. There is no connection between the Girard article and Saito's article. The Shukan Asahi article focuses on history and incidents and activist initiatives, practically entirely in the greater Kansai area and Shikoku. The closest it gets to Kanto is a 1925 case involving violence against some people in a what is known as the Serada-mura jiken (世良田村事件). The village was in Nitta-gun in Gunma. It is now a "chou" of Oita-shi. Given the fact that Shukan Asahi was reporting developments in the Girard case (as one contemporary Dropbox article shows), you would think the "Buraku o kaihgo se yo: Nihon no naka no houken-sei" feature would have made some reference to it, but no. Ostensibly the Girard case does not warrant mention because it does not represent an example of discrimination. 1957 issues of Kaido's monthly journal "Buraku" has some content related to the Girard case. It's overview of 60 years of Suiheisha history lists the case in the chronology of related events at the end (see Dropbox). Otherwise, not a lot is made of the incident. My own impression is the scavengers took advantage of the incident to secure their "monopoly" over what was to them an economic resource that predates the takeover of the area by U.S. forces from Imperial Japanese forces. Hence, as some contemporary English reports pointed out (see Ishii's report on the scavengers, in Dropbox), the farmers and others who had become dependent on supplementary income from scavenging metal scrap appeared to be apolitical. At least they don't easily fall into the "anti-U.S. base" category. And on the whole, they are not inclined to be interested in radical leftist ideology.
Girard incident time line (1957-1958)
1910 (Meiji 43) Somagahara is established as a Japanese Army base (kichi 基地). Original area about 1.36 million tsubo (450 hectare, 1,111 acres).
1922 (Taisho 11) Area expanded by about 0.610 million tsubo (202 hectare, 498 acres).
1941 (Showa 16) Area expanded by about 133 hectare (402,325 tsubo, 329 acres). Total area at this time was about 800 hectare (2.42 million tsubo, 1,977 acres).
1945-1952 (Allied Occupation)
11 April 1946 Colonel Ford, an American officer at GHQ/SCAP, notifed the governor of Gunma that the U.S. Army was requisitioning the entirety of the former Imperial Army base at Somagahara, and in addition 2,300 hectare (about 7.0 million tsubo) of land including 1,500 hectare of public and private forestland, and for use as an exercise (training, maneuvering) grounds, and ordered that all people residing within the prescribed are would have to leave, and that entering the area (tresspassing) was prohibitted. The U.S. Army had taken command of the facility from the Imperial Army in the process of disarming and dissolving Japanese military forces after the Allied Occupation began on 2 September 1945.
June 1950 People with permits, at designated times, are allowed to enter the grounds, to engage in activities related to their livelihoods. However, they are not allowed to enter firing grounds during exercises, during firing (Narisawa 1979: 226).
30 January 1957 (Wednesday) Sakai Naka (坂井なか), the 46-year-old wife of Sakai Akikichi (坂井秋吉) and mother of six, was shot and killed by 21-year-old U.S Army Specialist Third Class William S. Girard (ウィリアム'S'ジラード) within the perimeter of Camp Weir at Sōmagahara (相馬ヶ原), a former Japanese Imperial Army training base U.S. Army used for infantry exercises.
At the time of the Girard incident, the U.S. Army was sharing the Sōmagahara area with Japanese military forces, which were authorized in 1950 shortly after the start of the Korean War and became the Self-Defense Forces in 1954. In 1958, the U.S. Army returned Camp Weir to Japan, and Sōmagahara is now the headquarters of the 12th Brigade of the Japanese Ground Self-Defense Forces (JGSDF).
Camp Weir straddled Sōma village (Sōma-mura 相馬村) and neighboring towns and villages in Gunma prefecture. Two months after the Girard Incident, Sōma village was divided into two parts, which were merged with Minowa town (Minowa-machi 箕輪町) to the west and Momonoi village (Momonoi-mura 桃井村) to the east. The main gate and related facilities of Camp Weir were in Momonoi, which was merged with the eastern part of Sōma to form a new village called Shintō (Shintō-mura 榛東村), hence some later reports concerning the incident placed Sōmagahara in Shintō.
Circumstances of incident
Girard and another soldier were guarding a machine gun and some clothing during an exercise of their cavalry company. Sakai and a number of other Japanese had entered the exercise area to collect spent cartridges to sell as scrap metal.
Girard denied allegations, partly supported by testimony from another soldier, that he liked to goof off, even throw out spent shell casings to tempt the brass pickers, then chase them off with pot shots over their heads. He admitted that he had fired an empty shell casing with a grenade launcher over the woman's head but had no intention of hitting her, and no idea that it would pentrate her body if it did hit her.
The firing range was well known to local people. Sakai, like many villagers, habitually ignored the posted warnings that the area was dangerous and off limits, and that tresspassers would be punished. At the time of the exercise, there were dozens, perhaps more than one hundred, Japanese brass scavengers on the grounds, and local police had not yet responded to military requests help in clearing the grounds of civilians.
3 February 1957 (Sunday) RESUME JAPANESE PAPERS
7 March 1957 (Thursday) The United States agrees to let the U.S.-Japan Joint Commission decide whether Girard should be tried in a Japanese or U.S. military court. The commission operates under the terms of the 1953 Administrative Agreement, and convenes to resolve conflicts that arise between the two parties. In this case, Japan's Ministry of Justice insists Girard should be tried in a Japanese court because he was not on official duty at the time he shot and killed Sakai Naka. The U.S. Army, however, contends that he was on duty at the time, hence his case was under U.S. Forces jurisdiction. (Tokyo, UP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 8 March 1957, page 11)
On 16 May, after several weeks of deliberation, the U.S. representative on the joint commission waived jurisdiction according with established procedures and instructions from Washington. (Washington, AP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 4 June 1957, page 11)Girard_1957-03-08_PSS_11_Joint_review.jpg Girard_1957-06-04_PSS_11_Wilson_statement.jpg
31 March 1957 Township of Koizumi (小泉町) and village of Ōkawa (大川村) merged as new township of Ōizumi (大泉町), now famous as the location of sizeable communities of families of Brazilian and Peruvian employees of local automobile and appliance factories. In 2009, Ōizumi will be merged into the neighboring city of Ōta (太田市), which had been upgraded from a township to a city in 1948.
When the United States closed Camp Drew and Camp Weir, among many other US military facilities in Japan, the town of Ōizumi was hit by unemployment. Residents split into two factions. One set out to entice companies to locate factories in the area. The other tried to attract Self-Defense Forces to the area.
16 May 1957 (Thursday) The United States formally agrees to yield its claim to jurisdiction in the Girard case to Japan's claim to jurisdiction. The Far East Command argued that Girard was "on duty" but Japan argued that his shooting of Sakai Naka was not "performance of official duty" as stated in the Administrative Agreement. The Maebashi public prosecutor, in accordance with instructions issued by the Supreme Court of Japan after the U.S. formally waived jurisdiction, indicted Girard on a charge of "involuntary manslaughter". (Washington, AP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 18 May 1957, page 2)
In March, when the U.S. agreed to submit the jurisdictional issue to the U.S.-Japan Joint Commission, the Secretary of Defense issued instructions, through the Department of Army, to the Far East Command, that the U.S. representative on the joint commission continue to press for U.S. jurisdiction but waive jurisdiction if Japan continued to insist on jurisdiction, which was in accordance with the agreement and precedent. (Washington, AP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 4 June 1957, page 11)Girard_1957-05-18_PSS_02_Wilson_blocks_trial.jpg Girard_1957-06-04_PSS_11_Wilson_statement.jpg
17 May 1957 (Friday night) Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson "blocked any immediate trial" of Girard by ordering U.S. military authorities in Japan to keep Girard in U.S. custody "pending a complete review of the matter". (Washington, AP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 18 May 1957, page 2)
18 May 1957 (Saturday night) The Maebashi procurator's (prosecutor's) office indicted Girard on charges of "manslaughter". Earlier, the Minister of Justice, Nakamura Umekichi, announced in the Judicial Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives that the Maebashi prosecutor's office was taking steps to indict Girard. Nakamura reported alluded to Wilson's order to hold up on the delivery of Girard to Japanese authorities. (Tokyo, UP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 19 May 1957, page 2)Girard_1957-05-19_PSS_02_Japan_indicts_Girard.jpg
22 May 1957 (Wednesday) U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower reportedly said he'd been briefed on the Girard case. His and Defense Secretary Wilson's intent was to make sure that while the U.S. honors its international agreements, that no American citizen be subjected to a miscarriage of justice. Girard's trial was scheduled to be begin on 21 June but he remained in U.S. custody. (Washington, AP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 23 May 1957, pages 1 and 2)Girard_1957-05-23_PSS_01-02_Ike_briefed.jpg
22 May 1957 (Wednesday) Chief Cabinet Secretary Ishida Hirohide called on the people of Japan to remain calm regarding the Girard case. As the spokesman for Prime Minister Kishi Nobusuke's cabinet, he said Japan's insistence on jurisdiction was not due to anti-American sentiments. He also said anti-Japanese sentiments in America were the result of "misunderstanding". (Tokyo, UP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 23 May 1957, page 2)Girard_1957-05-23_PSS_01-02_Ike_briefed.jpg
23 May 1957 (Thursday) An unnamed top policy official of the U.S. government reportedly stated that joint U.S.-Japan commission in Japan, which oversees the application of the Administrative Agreement under the Mutual Security treaty, was fully supported by the Defense and State Departments, and was the result of deliberation over a proper question of joint jurisdiction. (Washington, INS, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 25 May 1957, page 5)Girard_1957-05-25_PSS_03_Accord_expected.jpg
24 May 1957 (Friday) Chief Prosecutor Watanabe Maname [of the Maebashi Prosecutor's Office] reportedly announced that he had indicted Girard for "intent to inflict bodily injury" but not intent to murder. The indictment alleged that he had lured the victim to gather some empty shells, then when she approached, he chased her away and fired an empty cartridge in her direction. The cartridge was said to have hit her in the back and cut an artery, which caused her to bleed to death. Witnesses reported said that, after she fell, he asked her if she was okay. (Maebashi, Japan, AP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 24 May 1957, page 5)Girard_1957-05-24_PSS_05_Charged.jpg
26 May 1957 (Sunday) Acting Prime Minister Ishi Mitsujiro and Defense Agency Director Kodaki Akira stated that Japan would try Girard regardless of objections in the United States, referring to U.S. Defense Secretary Wilson's freeze on the planned transfer of Girard to Japanese custody. They said the trial would probably begin toward the end of June, and that Girard would be tried in abentia in the event the U.S. does not deliver him to Japanese custody. (From Wire Service Dispatches, Tokyo, May 26, The Courier Journal, 27 May 1957, page 2)Girard_1957-05-27_The_Courier-Journal_02.jpg
28 May 1957 (Tuesday) Kenneth Ishii, filing for International News Service, reports the conditions and sentiments he observed at Somahara. (Kenneth Ishii, Somagahara, INS, Pacific Stars and Stripes, page 6)Girard_1957-05-28_PSS_06_Ishii_scavengers.jpg
29 May 1957 (Wednesday) Department of Defense Wilson said at a press conference in Washington, D.C. that a final decision regarding the question of jurisdiction in the Girard was was coming soon. He said that the decision to waive jurisdiction was made in March and described the history of the waiver system in some detail, as reported by Associated Press. (Washington, AP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 30 May 1957, page 2)Girard_1957-05-30_PSS_02_Decision_soon.jpg
29 May 1957 (Wednesday) The Honolulu Star-Bulletin editorically urges Japan not to forget American kindness. For example -- the rescue of a paralized Japanese fisherman by an American military plane, and his treatment at a hospital in Honolulu. (Honolulu, AP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 31 May 1957, page 7)Girard_1957-05-31_PSS_07_American_kindness.jpg
4 June 1957 (Tuesday) The Pacific Stars and Stripes published the long text of the statement made by Defense Secretary Wilson which confirmed that Girard would be tried in a Japanese court. His described at length the legal grounds on which the U.S. decided to withdraw its claim to jurisdiction and recognize Japan's claim. (Washington, AP, Pacific Stars and Stripes, 4 June 1957, page 11)
4 June 1957 (Tuesday) The Eisenhower administration announced that it will follow through with the 16 May decision of the U.S. representative to the U.S.-Japan Joint Commission to waive U.S. military court jurisdiction in the Girard Case, according to a long report by AP writer John M. Hightower, based on the joint statement made on this day by Secretary of State Dulles and Secretary of Defense Wilson. After the 16 May decision, Wilson had issued an order to U.S. military officials in Japan not to implement the transfer of Girard to Japanese custody, for purpose of standing trial, until the matter was fully reviewed in Washingtoin. (John M. Hightower, 4 June 1957, AP, Abilene Reporter-News, 5 June 1957, page 4-B)Girard_1957-06-05_Abilene_Reporter-News_4-B.jpg
5 June 1957 (Wednesday) Kawachi Yuzō, Chief Justice of the Maebashi District Court, one of the 3 judges who would conduct the hearings in the Girard case, promised the trial would be fair. The 2 associate judges will be Saikwawa Teizō and Hirata Takashi. Kawachi reportedly said he would determine the date of the first hearing, which could be as early as late June if the United States wanted the trial to begin by then. (Maebashi, Japan, Wednesday, 5 June 1957, AP, Abilene Reporter-News, 5 June 1957, page 4-B)
16 May The U.S. ArmyU.S. Military Girard's mother joins his brother in unified family support for his defense.
18 May 1957 Gunma prefecture prosecutors charge Girard under Article 205 of the Penal Code, concerning the crime of death resulting from bodily injury (傷害致死罪), which was punishable with "a definite sentence of penal servitude of two or more years" (my translation).
The United States government persuaded Japanese authorities to delay legal actions in Japan until the issue of jurisdiction was resolved in US courts.
7 June Girard's mother joins his brother in unified family support for his defense.
10 June 1957 Robert Booth, who had appeared in a number of movies in Japan, who had been on trial since 1956 for a number of crimes involving illegal business transactions and currency dealings, disappears.
13 June 1957 President Eisenhower writes a letter to Girard's mother, promosing her that the United States government will do everything it can to insure that her son receives as fair a trial under Japanese law as she could expect him to receive in a court martial conducted by US armed forces. He stated that he regretted "the impression on the part of some that assertion of national prerogative in this situation is of more significance than is justice itself."
11 June 1957 The commotion over the Girard case drew critical commentary from all manner of quarters, including the following remarks by Paul V. Coates (1921-1968), writing in his "Confidential File" column in The Daily Mirror, a Los Angeles paper. He was also the host of a syndicated tabloidesque television series also called "Confidential File".
18 June 1957 An Illinois court rules, in litigation initiated by Girard's older brother, that he not be handed over to Japanese authorities. This is just one of several movements in the United States to prevent Girard from being tried in a Japanese court.
1 July 1957 The Far East Command and the Armed Forces Far East were discontinued. Headquarters, United Nations Comman, was moved from Tokyo to Yongsan in Seoul, home of the 8th Army Headquarters, which was moved from Camp Zama near Tokyo in Japan to Seoul in 1955. Zama remained home to Headquarters, Armed Forces Far East/Eighth Army (Rear) until 1 July 1957, when the Far East Command and the Armed Forces Far East were entirely replaced by Headquarters, US Forces Korea, in Yongsan. At this time, remnants of 8th Army units in Japan were moved to Korea, and a number of other US military units in Japan were closed. Headquarters, UN Command was also moved from Tokyo to Yongsan at this time.
5 July 1957 Girard married Taiwan-born Sueyama Haru (末山ハル), who was 7 years older than he was, in a ceremony held in the chapel at Camp Whittington.
8 July to 11 July 1957 "Wilson, Secretary of Defense, et al. v. Girard" Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit" (No. 1103) argued (8 July) and decided (July 11).
26 August 1957 First hearing of case at Maebashi District Court. Girard pleads that he shot over Sakai's head in the performance of his duties, and that he had not intended to hit her. United Press staff correspondent John Zimmermann filed a report that was carried by many U.S. papers.
6 September 1957 At a second hearing, Japanese winesses testify that soldiers often fired upon Japanese shell pickers and applaused when they ran off.
22 September 1957 Associated Press puts John Hersey's long interview with Sakai Naka's family, and his huge nearly full-page analysis of the case to this point, out on the wire, and at least one paper carries most of it.
Gives Rare Insight Into Japanese View Of The Girard Case
4 October 1957 Sputnik 1 launched into low elliptical orbit. The satellite burned as it fell from orbit and into the atomosphere on 4 January 1958.
10 October 1957 In yet another hearing, Girard's platoon commander backs his claim that the shooting incident took place while the firing exercise was in progress.
30 October 1957 Prosecutor demands five-year sentence, arguing that Girard harbored malice beyond his official duties.
5 November 1957 Closing arguments delivered at 13th public hearing. Girard's principal attorney, Hayashi, argued that Girard had attempted to drive away cartridge case pickers in order to protect the machine gun, that the testimonies of Japanese concerning the shooting act could not be trusted, and that testimony of the soldier who had been with at the time had been fabricated out of jealousy over the fame Girard was enjoying in the United States and from worry that he himself might be charged.
9 November 1957 Judge Kawachi sentenced Girard to three years with a four-year stay of execution, which meant Girard would not serve time. The judge took into consideration the assertions of the prosecution but also found that those who enter areas that are posted as dangerous also have some responsibility. He held that the defendant had not shot the victim intentionally, had deeply repented, and there was no fear of a repetition of the crime.
6 December 1957 18 December 1957 Time article reports that "Army Private William S. Girard, 22, and his Japanese bride Haru ("Candy") Sueyama, 27" sailed from Yokohama on an American troop transport bound for San Francisco. The article observes that during Girard's trial, "Candy Girard, onetime B-girl, even got notes from Japanese suggesting that she ought to go commit harakiri."
10 December 1957 Mt. Amagi double suicide (Amagi-san shinjū 天城山心中)天城山心中（あまぎさん しんじゅう）とは、1957年12月10日に、伊豆半島の天城山において、学習院大学の男子学生である大久保武道（八戸市出身、当時20歳）と、同級生女子の愛新覚羅慧生（当時19歳）の2名が、大久保の所持していた拳銃で頭部を撃ち抜いた状態の死体で発見され、当時のマスコミ等で「天国に結ぶ恋」として報道された事件。 慧生は清朝最後の皇帝にして、旧満州国の皇帝でもあった愛新覚羅溥儀の姪にあたり、溥儀の実弟愛新覚羅溥傑の長女。 （あいしんかくら えいせい、1938年2月26日 - 1957年12月4日頃） Aixinjueluo Huisheng 清および満州国皇帝・愛新覚羅溥儀の実弟溥傑の長女。天城山心中で死亡した女性として知られる。
14 August 1958 Haru gives birth to a daughter she names Roxane Marie Girard. William Girard has reportedly found a job as a mechanic in La Salle. (Ottowa, Ill., UPI, Arizona Republic, 22 August 1958, page 17).Girard_1958-08-22_Arizona_Republic_17_Roxanne_Marie.jpg
25 August 1958 The 25 August 1958 issue of Time Magazine, which featured Troubleshooter Robert Murphy on its cover, reported that William Girard and Haru Girard had become parents, as follows (see Time for access to full story).
16 March 1979 Haru Girard petitioned for naturalization in the U.S. District Court in San Diego on 5 December 1978. She became a U.S. citizen on 16 March 1979.
On her petition for naturalization, she stated she was born in Japan. In 1928, Taiwan was part of Japan.
24 October 1999 William Sylvester Girard, who was born on 11 August 1935 in Streator, Illinois, died on 24 October 1999 in San Diego, California. He is buried with Haru in Mount Hope Cemetery in San Diego.
5 June 2007 Los Angeles Times carries an article by reporter Larry Harnisch about the Girard incident, in which he introduces Haru as follows, based on an unidentified article by John Hersey (Los Angeles Times, The Daily Mirror: Larry Harnisch Reflects on Los Angeles History, Courts, Soldier kills woman, June 5, 1957, retrieved 23 January 2009).
5 June 2007 Haru Girard, who was born on 5 July 1928 in Taipei, in Taiwan, died in 2013. She is buried with William in Mount Hope Cemetery in San Diego.
Haru Girard and Nancy Umeki
Girard and Sueyama would be pursued for a while by gossip mongers in both Japan and the United States. In Japan, Fujin Asahi (婦人朝日), published by Asahi Shinbun Sha (朝日新聞社), which produces one of Japan's major national dailies, carried the longest article I have seen on the couple in its October 1958 issue (Number 153).
Hamada Yōko (浜田容子)
The "news heroines" in this report, which consists of two separate articles, are two Japanese women in the United States who had recently achieved notoriety or fame and are apparently happy in their marriages to American men. The first woman is Girard Haru, who the previous year had married an American soldier during his trial in Japan for shooting a woman while on duty. The other women is Nancy Umeki, who had won an Acadamy Award and then married an American television director.
The articles are based on personal interviews conducted at the homes of the two women in the United States. The author, Hamada Yōko (b1929), was billed as a correspondent for Nana Tsushin (NANA通信), an international entertainment industry news agency. In 1964 she herself got a certain amount of attention for a now rather hard to find book called "America and Americans", which covers a number of household subjects like homosexuality, child battering, and credit buying (浜田容子、アメリカとアメリカ人、東京'実業之日本社、昭和39年、実日新書).
Nancy Umeki (1929-2007), known in Japan also as Miyoshi Umeki (ミヨシ'ウメキ), was in her prime a fairly well-known Hollywood actress, best known for her role Sayonara (1957), for which she received the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. Her 1958 marriage to Frederick Winfield Opie, which ended in divorce in 1967, resulted in a son born in 1964. She remarried in 1968 and died of cancer in 2007.
William and Haru Girard
William Sylvester Girard was born on 11 August 1935 in Streator, Illinois and died on 24 October 1999 in San Diego, California. He is buried in Mount Hope Cemetery in San Diego.
Haru Girard was born in Taiwan, which at the time was part of Japan, on 5 July 1928. She petitioned for naturalization in the U.S. District Court in San Diego on 5 December 1978 and became a U.S. citizen on 16 March 1979. She died in 2013 and is buried in Mount Hope Cemetery in San Diego.
They share a single "Girard" headstone as simply "William" and "Haru".
Prays for Husband
Oizumi, Japan (UP) -- Haru Girard, Japanese bride of G.I. William Girard, clasps Buddhist rosary as she prays before altar in her room here. The Ottawa, Ill. soldier learns tonight whether a Japanese court has found him guilty in the death of a Japanese woman, shot last January on U.S. firing range.
Girard case Associated Press file cards
The Girard case in the Pacific Stars and Stripes
The Girard case essentially define 1957. For William S. Girard, it began in 30 January 1957 when he killed Sakai Naka on a U.S. Army firing range in Gunma prefecture, and it ended on 3 December 1957 when the prosecutor's office announced that it would not appeal the 19 November 1957 Maebashi District Court sentence of 3 years imprisonment commuted to 4 years for manslaughter. 2 days later, on 5 December 1957, Giraud left Japan for America with his wife Haru.
3rd most important story of the year
In it's 31 December 1957 issue, the Pacific Stars and Stripes reported that its reader's ranked the Giraud case the 3rd most important story of the year. The launching of the 2 Sputnik satellites by the Soviet Union in October and November, the 2nd with a dog aboard, ranked 1st story of the year. The 2nd most important story was the racial integration in U.S. schools and the sending of U.S. troops into Little Rock in Arkansas to enforce such integration. Practically all other top stories were of a political nature.
Considering its readership, the Pacific Stars and Stripes naturally gave more than a little space to the Girard case, especially after it became a hotly contested legal issue that required the intervention of the United States Supreme Court.
TheGirard_1957-07-13_PSS_01_Supreme_Court.jpg Girard_1957-07-13_PSS_02_Supreme_Court.jpg Girard_1957-07-13_PSS_11_Supreme_Court.jpg
John Hersey on Girard case
E. W. Kenworthy on the Girard case
At the time of the Girard case, the vast majority of Americans got their news by reading local papers, and the vast majority of local papers got their national and international news from wire services. Only large city papers had bureaus in other large cities, and only the largest city papers, The New York Times, had bureaus outside the United States.
New Yorkers, at least those who read The New York Times, didn't necessarily get higher quality news, but they defintely got of it, in long signed articles that began on one page and spilled over to other pages. The following piece, by E. W. Kenworthy, came at height of decision by the Supreme Court that mandated the U.S. Army to allow Girard to be tried by a court in Japan.
E. W. Kenworthy [The New York Times Tokyo Bureau]
The Facts in the Girard Case
From "U.S. Agrees to Let Japanese Try GI in Woman's Death"
The New York Times, 5 June 1957, pages 1ff
As revised in
Elizabeth and Victor A. Velen, editors
The New Japan
New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1958
Reference Shelf, Volume 30, No. 2
203 pages, pages 179-181
The following text is based on a scan of The New Japan posted by Internet Archive. The ellipses ( . . . ) and the [bracketed remark] at the end are as received.
THE FACTS OF THE GIRARD CASE
The United States agreed . . . that a Japanese court should try an American soldier charged with having killed a Japanese woman.
The soldier is Army Specialist 3/c William S. Girard, twenty-one years old, of Ottawa, Illinois.
. . . [On January 30, 1957] Girard fired an empty cartridge case from a grenade launcher to frighten away several Japanese scavenging for metal on the firing range at Somagahara. Mme. Naka Sakai, forty-six years old, was hit in the back by the shell case and killed.
In a joint statement issued at the Pentagon . . . Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles said that Girard's action "was not authorized" and therefore was not done in the performance of duty.
Consequently, the two officials said that they had concluded that the trial of Girard in Japanese courts was "in full accord" with an agreement between Japan and the United States governing the status of American forces in Japan.
The question of jurisdiction in the Girard case has become a heated issue in the Japanese press and has inflamed public opinion.
The Government's decision in the Girard case came less than two weeks after the destructive anti-American rioting in Taipei, Taiwan. The rioters, who sacked the United States Embassy and the United States Information Agency building, were angered by a United States Army court-martial's acquittal of a sergeant accused of having killed a Chinese Peeping Tom. . . .
Under the status-of-forces agreements, an offense committed by United States service men against foreign nationals is within the jurisdiction of United States courts-martial if the offense arises "out of an act or omission done in the performance of official duty." Otherwise it is within the jurisdiction of the host country's courts.
However, the host country has the final decision, in case of dispute, over whether an offense is, or is not, committed in performance of duty.
Facts of the Incident
In the Girard case, the basic facts of what happened are not in dispute. The incident, as described by Secretaries Dulles and Wilson today, happened in this way:
A number of Japanese were on the firing range gathering empty brass cartridge cases. These civilians had created such a risk of injury to themselves during morning exercises that the commanding officer withdrew live ammunition before the start of the afternoon exercises.
In the interval between the two exercises, Girard and another soldier were ordered to guard a machine gun and other equipment. It was during this interval that Girard put a cartridge case in his grenade launcher, fired it. and killed Mme. Sakai.
The grenade launcher is a device that fastens on the muzzle of a rifle. The firing of a blank charge in place of a regular cartridge in the rifle launches an explosive grenade for an arched flight up to 100 yards. In this case an empty cartridge case rather than a grenade was launched.
Under the treaty provisions, the case went to the Joint United States- Japan Committee. The United States representative asked for military jurisdiction because the divisional commander had certified that Girard's action was committed in the performance of duty.
The Japanese held that it was not part of his duty to fire at the scavengers, that the firing was done between exercises, and that Girard had thrown out empty shell cases to entice the scavengers to come closer. Girard denied this, and said that he had been merely trying to frighten the scavengers.
For the first time in more than 14,000 alleged offenses against Japanese law, Japanese officials claimed their right to judge whether the offense was connected with performance of duty.
With the Joint United States-Japan Committee deadlocked, the United States representative was finally authorized on May 16 to surrender jurisdiction. There was an immediate uproar in Congress, and the next day Secretary Wilson ordered that Girard be held in United States custody pending a review.
The Wilson order brought an outcry in Japan. Since a treaty question was involved, as well as Japanese-American relations, the State Department at this point stepped into the situation, and the question was ultimately carried to the President. [The trial of Girard in a Japanese court ended in a three-year suspended sentence for Girard in late 1957 -- Eds.]
Melvin Belli on Girard case
Haru and Kayako
Sueyama Haru, as William Girard's girlfriend and then wife, crossed paths with Sakai Kayako, the oldest daughter of Sakai Naka, the victim of Girard's reckless shooting at Camp Weir, and the two women had clashing views on the incident and the court case. Ray Falk, writing for the World News Service, a McGraw-Hill agency, reveals how the women felt about each other.
Falk also states, unlike most other foreign reporters at the time, that Haru was a member of Sōka Gakkai, a religious organization. He calls it a "fanatic sect" but says nothing about or writes anything else that would justify the "fanatic" characterization, which detracts from the otherwise simple, dramatic, and ostensibly objective tone of the article.
Sōka Gakkai (創価学会) or "new-values learning-association" was at the time a controversial "new [upstart] religion" (shinkō shūkyō 新興宗教). It generally follows the tenets of the Nichren sect (Nichiren-shū 日蓮宗) of Buddhism, which places importance on the Lotus Sutra (Hokekyō 法華経). The "fanatic" impression comes from the zeal that many of its members show for their faith and the organization, which at the time and (and arguably still has) political as well as religious ambitions. Practitioners typically discipline themselves to rise early in the morning for a round of prayer, which consists of kneeling in front of an altar and chanting the Lotus Sutra refrain, "Nanmu Amida Butsu" (南無阿弥陀) while occasionally striking a small gong. When rapidly repeated, the refrain reduces to something like "nam-mam-daa-buu" (なんまんだーぶー), The chanting and clanging are known to disturb neighbors, and families and friendships have sometimes been stressed by efforts on the part of a believer to persuade other they known to join the sect, which some have likened to a cult built around its leader Ideda Daisaku (池田大作), Sōka Gakkai's 3rd president and the founder of Soka Gakkai International.
Sueyama Haru's personal story
The Girards in America
The Singapore Free Press carried the following long mixed report on page 3 of its Friday, 12 July 1957 edition. The headlines drew attention to (1) the forthcoming trial of Girard in Japan, (2) death threats against Mrs. Girard, and (3) the view of ambassador to the United States from the Philippines on the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling on sovereignty and jurisdiction.
The following text is my transcription and formatting of a very low resolution and copy-protected image of the article on the website of the National Library Board of the Singapore Government. High resolution images can be accessed only from multimedia stations at NLB libraries, or at the Lee Kong Chian Reference Library in Singapore.
The information in the unsigned article is attributed at the end to United Press, Associated Press, and Reuters. The bold and italic mark-up in the following representation of the article are as received. The [bracketed remarks] are mine.
Jap trial of G.I. on August 26.
MRS. GIRARD REPORTS DEATH THREAT
Romulo Lauds US decision
As the Japanese prepared to open the trial on Aug. 26 of U.S. Army Specialist William S. Girard on a charge of causing the death of a Japanese woman, his Japanese wife, Candy, reported to the Kagohara police that she had been threatened with death unless she divorced Girard by Monday.
This startling development followed the unanimous decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in Washington yesterday to authorize U. S. authorities in Japan to turn over Girard to Japan for trial on grounds that "a sovereign nation has exclusive jurisdiction to punish offences against its laws committed within its borders, unless it expressly or impliedly consents to surrender its jurisdiction."
In Tokyo this morning, Mr. Justice Yuzo Kawachi , judge of the Maebashi district court where Girard's trial will be held, said, "I am going to give Girard as fair and fast a trial as possible."
Newly-wedded Mrs. Girard, 20, who reported the death threat to the Kagohara police, said she had received a letter at her home near Camp Whittington, where Girard is being held, calling her a "traitor to Japan for having married a man who killed a Japanese.
Camp Whittington was near the city of Kumagaya (熊谷) in northeast Saitama prefecture. The homicide occured at Camp Weir in neighboring Gunma prefecture, and so the trial was held in Maebashi (前橋), the prefectural seat of Gunma. Kagohara (籠原) was part of Kumagaya, and there are Kumagaya and Kagohara train stations roughly midway between Ueno station in Tokyo and Takasaki in Gunma, on the Takasaki line (高崎線). From Takaski the line branches to the Jōetsu line (上越線), which at Shin-Maebashi (新前橋) branches to the Ryōmō line (両毛線) for Maebashi (前橋) and Isezaki (伊勢崎). Maebashi is actually very close to Takasaki, and many Takasaki line trains continue from Takasaki directly to Maebashi. From 2015, a Ueno-Tokyo through line began operating, which in effect connects the Takasaki line and some other lines which feed into Ueno from northern and eastern prefectures, directly with the Tokkaido main line, which runs to the southwest from Tokyo.
The writer of the letter, who identified himself as the head of an unidentified 100,000-member patriotic organization, warned Mrs. Girard that, if she did not announce her intention to divorce Girard by Monday, "our youth corps will descend upon you!"
In Washington last night, State Department officials said the Government was naturally pleased with the Supreme Court's decision because it honoured commitments to Japan.
They said the Girard case had worldwide implications since it had raised a challenging point in the stationing of all United States troops abroad.
The Philippine Ambassador in Washington, Lieut. Gen. Carlos P. Romulo, said the Supreme Court's ruling "will enhance American prestige in Asia and the rest of the world."
Gen. Romulo added, "It will show how right we are in our demand for respect to our national sovereignty." The Philippines is demanding the right to try all American soldiers in Philippine courts if they are charged with violation of Philippine laws.
At Maebashi near Tokyo, the husband of the Japanese woman who was killed in the Girard incident said it was "quite natural" for the U.S. Supreme Court to decide that Japan should have jurisdiction over the American alleged to have been responsible for the death of his wife.
At Girard's home town of Ottawa, Illinois, his brother, Mr. Louis Girard, a garage mechanic, commented: "I didn't know anything like that could go on in this country. I didn't think the decision would go that way. Mom didn't either. None of us did."
The New York Daily News said today the Supreme Court decision "could have been foreseen from the browbeating several of the justices dealt Girard's attorneys at the hearing of the case last Monday." -- U.P. | A.P. | Reuter.
I suspect that Haru, given her religiosity (and I would guess, partly due to that, the meanings she attached to the marriage and her family), made arrangements for the headstone. If not, then one or both daughters did. Their final street address in California was fairly stable, and their graveyard address will probably not change in the foreseeable future. Linda
Girard case in memoriam
Girard incident humor
Practically all of Japan's newspapers, the big national dailies which have regional editions, and the local dailies which have much smaller circulations in their home cities, have 4-frame comic strips that may at times be vehicles of political humor. The weekly magazines, though, are more likely to feature a comic strip or two the makes serious levity out social and political issues. The national dailies have also featured political cartoons, but single-frame cartoons are not nearly as common in Japan as in the United States.
At the time of the Girard incident, there were a number of bimonthly and even weekly comic magazines that featured all manner of graphic humor, most of it created in Japan, but also translations of mostly English language cartoons and comic strips. These magazines gave a lot of space to material with sexual and other social themes, but some of the content was political, or can seen in the following representations of the Girard incident.
Japan v. Gregory J. Kupski, 1957-1959
Other cases of interest
Here I have collected several other cases that dramatize the various ways military personnel and civilians charged with an offense of one or another state's laws, or military codes, were treated under bilateral or multilateral agreements consisting of criteria for determining jurisdiction.
Most of the cases involve foreign military personnel in Japan, and most involve U.S. Forces military personnel. Some cases involve military civilians, and a few involve ordinary civilians. Several cases involve United Nations Forces personnel in Japan, other than Americans, and some cases from the Republic of Korea, the Republic of China, and Germany are also included.
I have organized the cases by the name(s) of the defendant(s) in ABC order, within each of the general affiliation categories. All cases are dated between 1950 and 1959.
The fewer than 50 cases shown here represent only about 1/3rd of 1 percent of the roughly 15,000 cases that were tried by local national or military courts in Japan alone during the 1950s. The main criteria for their selection is serendipity. I just happened to spot articles about them in the same editions of some of the papers that carried reports on the Girard and Kupski cases.
Cases involving US Forces military personnel in Japan